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Wang D.,Xuchang University | Wang Y.,Xuchang University | Xiao F.,Xuchang University | Guo W.,Xuchang University | And 3 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2015

Molecular detection of bacterial pathogens based on LAMP methods is a faster and simpler approach than conventional culture methods. Although different LAMP-based methods for pathogenic bacterial detection are available, a systematic comparison of these different LAMP assays has not been performed. In this paper, we compared 12 in-house real-time LAMP assays with a commercialized kit (Isothermal Master Mix) for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157, E. coli O26, E. coli O45, E. coli O103, E. coli O111, E. coli O121, E. coli O145 and Streptococcus agalactiae. False-positive results were observed in all 12 in-house real-time LAMP assays, while all the negative controls of Isothermal Master Mix remained negative after amplification. The detection limit of Isothermal Master Mix for Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157, E. coli O26, E. coli O45, E. coli O103, E. coli O111, E. coli O121 and Streptococcus agalactiae was 1 pg, whereas the sensitivity of the commercialized kit for E. coli O145 was 100 pg. In conclusion, the 12 in-house real-time LAMP assays were impractical to use, while the commercialized kit Isothermal Master Mix was useful for the detection of most bacterial pathogens. © 2015 by the authors. Source


Yoo B.K.,Residue Chemistry and Predictive Microbiology Research Unit | Liu Y.,Molecular Characterization of Foodborne Pathogens Research Unit | Juneja V.,Residue Chemistry and Predictive Microbiology Research Unit | Huang L.,Residue Chemistry and Predictive Microbiology Research Unit | Hwang C.-A.,Residue Chemistry and Predictive Microbiology Research Unit
Food Control | Year: 2015

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major foodborne pathogen causing serious illnesses and hospitalizations in the United States. Bacteria that are exposed to environmental stresses during food processing may exhibit different growth patterns in the subsequent growth environment. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of environmental stresses on the growth of O15H and non-O157 STEC in lettuce or cantaloupe. Strains of O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC (O26:H11, O103:H1, O104:H4, and O145:NM) were subjected to four selected stresses including 2ppm of chlorine, aw of 0.97 (osmotic stress), and pH 5(acid stress)at 22°C for 24h, or starvation (lack of nutrients) at 22°C for 15d. A cocktail mix of stressed or non-stressed (control) O157 or non-O157 at 3 log CFU/g (control or stressed) was inoculated on lettuce or cantaloupe and incubated at 10 and 22°C for four weeks. While there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the growth of stressed and unstressed cells of non-O157 STEC, no difference was observed in the growth of stressed and unstressed O157 STEC cells. Osmotic-stressed non-O157 STEC had significantly higher cell populations than control with 2 log difference (9.0 vs. 6.8 log CFU/g) at 10°C on lettuce and 1 log difference (9.3 vs. 8.3 log CFU/g) at 22°C on cantaloupe after 4 weeks. Acid-stressed non-O157 STEC had significantly higher cell populations than control at 10°C after 4 weeks with >1 log difference (7.7 vs. 6.3 log CFU/ml) on cantaloupe. Starvation-stressed non-O157 STEC showed significantly higher cell populations than control with 1 log difference (8.4 vs. 7.2 log CFU/g) at 22°C on cantaloupe after 4 weeks. The results indicated that osmotic, acid, or starvation stress may enhance the growth of non-O157 STEC on lettuce or cantaloupe and lead to a greater safety risk. © 2015. Source


Brewster J.D.,Molecular Characterization of Foodborne Pathogens Research Unit | Paul M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

Centrifugation is widely used to isolate and concentrate bacteria from dairy products before assay. We found that more than 98% of common pathogenic bacteria added to pasteurized, homogenized, or pasteurized homogenized milk were recovered in the pellet after centrifugation, whereas less than 7% were recovered from raw milk. The remaining bacteria partitioned into the cream layer of raw milk within 5 min, and half-saturation of the cream layer required a bacterial load of approximately 5 × 108 cfu/mL. Known treatments (e.g., heat, enzymes or solvents) can disrupt cream layer binding and improve recovery from raw milk, but can also damage bacteria and compromise detection. We developed a simple, rapid agitation treatment that disrupted bacteria binding to the cream layer and provided more than 95% recovery without affecting bacteria viability. Combining this simple agitation treatment with a previously developed real-time quantitative PCR assay allowed the detection of Salmonella spp. in raw milk at 4 cfu/mL within 3 h. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an effective method for achieving high centrifugal recovery of bacteria from raw milk without impairing bacterial viability. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Source


He Y.,Molecular Characterization of Foodborne Pathogens Research Unit | Ingudam S.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Reed S.,Molecular Characterization of Foodborne Pathogens Research Unit | Gehring A.,Molecular Characterization of Foodborne Pathogens Research Unit | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nanobiotechnology | Year: 2016

Background: Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO nanoparticles, with average size of 20nm) have considerable potential as antimicrobial agents in food safety applications due to their structure, surface properties, and stability. The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial effects and mechanism of action of MgO nanoparticles against several important foodborne pathogens. Results: Resazurin (a redox sensitive dye) microplate assay was used for measuring growth inhibition of bacteria treated with MgO nanoparticles. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of MgO nanoparticles to 104 colony-forming unit/ml (CFU/ml) of Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Enteritidis were determined to be 0.5, 1 and 1mg/ml, respectively. To completely inactivate 108-9 CFU/ml bacterial cells in 4h, a minimal concentration of 2mg/ml MgO nanoparticles was required for C. jejuni whereas E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis required at least 8mg/ml nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy examination revealed clear morphological changes and membrane structural damage in the cells treated with MgO nanoparticles. A quantitative real-time PCR combined with ethidium monoazide pretreatment confirmed cell membrane permeability was increased after exposure to the nanoparticles. In a cell free assay, a low level (1.1μM) of H2O2 was detected in the nanoparticle suspensions. Consistently, MgO nanoparticles greatly induced the gene expression of KatA, a sole catalase in C. jejuni for breaking down H2O2 to H2O and O2. Conclusions: MgO nanoparticles have strong antibacterial activity against three important foodborne pathogens. The interaction of nanoparticles with bacterial cells causes cell membrane leakage, induces oxidative stress, and ultimately leads to cell death. © 2016 The Author(s). Source


Gehring A.,Molecular Characterization of Foodborne Pathogens Research Unit
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2013

Many rapid methods have been developed for screening foods for the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Rapid methods that have the additional ability to identify microorganisms via multiplexed immunological recognition have the potential for classification or typing of microbial contaminants thus facilitating epidemiological investigations that aim to identify outbreaks and trace back the contamination to its source. This manuscript introduces a novel, high throughput typing platform that employs microarrayed multiwell plate substrates and laser-induced fluorescence of the nucleic acid intercalating dye/stain SYBR Gold for detection of antibody-captured bacteria. The aim of this study was to use this platform for comparison of different sets of antibodies raised against the same pathogens as well as demonstrate its potential effectiveness for serotyping. To that end, two sets of antibodies raised against each of the "Big Six" non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) as well as E. coli O157:H7 were array-printed into microtiter plates, and serial dilutions of the bacteria were added and subsequently detected. Though antibody specificity was not sufficient for the development of an STEC serotyping method, the STEC antibody sets performed reasonably well exhibiting that specificity increased at lower capture antibody concentrations or, conversely, at lower bacterial target concentrations. The favorable results indicated that with sufficiently selective and ideally concentrated sets of biorecognition elements (e.g., antibodies or aptamers), this high-throughput platform can be used to rapidly type microbial isolates derived from food samples within ca. 80 min of total assay time. It can also potentially be used to detect the pathogens from food enrichments and at least serve as a platform for testing antibodies. Source

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