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Menacho-Marquez M.,National University of Rosario | Rodriguez-Hernandez C.J.,Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory | Villarong M.A.,Hospital Universitario Central Of Asturias | Perez-Valle J.,Institute of Molecular Biology of Barcelona IBMB | And 3 more authors.
Cell Cycle | Year: 2015

β-lapachone (β-lap) is a novel anticancer agent that selectively induces cell death in human cancer cells, by activation of the NQO1 NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and radical oxygen species (ROS) generation. We characterized the gene expression profile of budding yeast cells treated with β-lap using cDNA microarrays. Genes involved in tolerance to oxidative stress were differentially expressed in bβ-lap treated cells. β-lap treatment generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were efficiently blocked by dicoumarol, an inhibitor of NADH dehydrogenases. A yeast mutant in the mitocondrial NADH dehydrogenase Nde2p was found to be resistant to β-lap treatment, despite inducing ROS production in a WT manner. Most interestingly, DNA damage responses triggered by β-lap were abolished in the nde2D mutant. Amino acid biosynthesis genes were also induced in β-lap treated cells, suggesting that β-lap exposure somehow triggered the General Control of Nutrients (GCN) pathway. Accordingly, β-lap treatment increased phosphorylation of eIF2α subunit in a manner dependent on the Gcn2p kinase. eIF2α phosphorylation required Gcn1p, Gcn20p and Nde2p. Gcn2p was also required for cell survival upon exposure to β-lap and to elicit checkpoint responses. Remarkably, β-lap treatment increased phosphorylation of eIF2α in breast tumor cells, in a manner dependent on the Nde2p ortholog AIF, and the eIF2 kinase PERK. These findings uncover a new target pathway of β-lap in yeast and human cells and highlight a previously unknown functional connection between Nde2p, Gcn2p and DNA damage responses. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Gautam A.,University of Edinburgh | Gautam A.,Imperial College London | Grainger R.J.,University of Edinburgh | Vilardell J.,Institute of Molecular Biology of Barcelona IBMB | And 3 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2015

Pre-mRNA splicing involves two transesterification steps catalyzed by the spliceosome. How RNA substrates are positioned in each step and the molecular rearrangements involved, remain obscure. Here, we show that mutations in PRP16, PRP8, SNU114 and the U5 snRNA that affect this process interact genetically with CWC21, that encodes the yeast orthologue of the human SR protein, SRm300/SRRM2. Our microarray analysis shows changes in 3′ splice site selection at elevated temperature in a subset of introns in cwc21Δ cells. Considering all the available data, we propose a role for Cwc21p positioning the 3′ splice site at the transition to the second step conformation of the spliceosome, mediated through its interactions with the U5 snRNP. This suggests a mechanism whereby SRm300/SRRM2, might influence splice site selection in human cells. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research. Source


Perez-Valle J.,Institute of Molecular Biology of Barcelona IBMB | Vilardell J.,Institute of Molecular Biology of Barcelona IBMB | Vilardell J.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: RNA | Year: 2012

Most eukaryotic primary transcripts include segments, or introns, that will be accurately removed during RNA biogenesis. This process, known as pre-messenger RNA splicing, is catalyzed by the spliceosome, accurately selecting a set of intronic marks from others apparently equivalent. This identification is critical, as incorrectly spliced RNAs can be toxic for the organism. One of these marks, the dinucleotide AG, signals the intronic 3′ end, or 3′ splice site (ss). In this review we will focus on those intronic features that have an impact on 3′ ss selection. These include the location and type of neighboring sequences, and their distance to the 3′ end. We will see that their interplay is needed to select the right intronic end, and that this can be modulated by additional intronic elements that contribute to alternative splicing, whereby diverse RNAs can be generated from identical precursors. This complexity, still poorly understood, is fundamental for the accuracy of gene expression. In addition, a clear knowledge of 3′ ss selection is needed to fully decipher the coding potential of genomes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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