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Di Monta G.,Soft Tissues | Caraco C.,Soft Tissues | Benedetto L.,Soft Tissues | La Padula S.,Soft Tissues | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2014

Background Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a novel modality for the treatment of skin nodules and cutaneous or subcutaneous tumors that allows delivery of low and non-permeant drug into cells. The aim of this prospective single-center study was to evaluate ECT efficacy in the local treatment of Classic Kaposi's sarcoma (CKS) skin localization stage I-II sec. Brambilla et al. Methods Nineteen consecutive patients affected by classic KS were included in this study. All patients underwent blood sampling and concurrent incisional biopsy for histological diagnosis and Kaposi's sarcoma related herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) molecular analysis. ECT treatment of KS cutaneous lesions were performed according to the European Standard Operating Procedures of Electrochemotherapy (ESOPE). The primary endpoint of the study was the evaluation of ECT efficacy in the treatment of KS skin nodules and the assessment of HHV-8 viral load in the peripheral blood following the ECT therapy. Results Complete response (CR) was observed in 14 (73.6%) patients after first ECT session, while 3 (15.7%) and 2 (10.5%) out of 19 patients received a second and a third ECT treatment, respectively. Clinical response dragged out the whole follow-up period that ranged between 6 and 31 months with a median of 16 months. Conclusions Clinical management of CKS skin localizations still represents a challenging task for surgeons and oncologists. Therefore, according to this and other author's recent experiences, ECT is claimed to become the "new standard of care" as first line treatment strategy for stage I-II CKS patients. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Starita N.,Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | Annunziata C.,Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | Waddell K.M.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Buonaguro L.,Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | And 2 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is particularly high in sub-Saharan Africa with temporal trends similar to those of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV8), has not yet been investigated in conjunctiva tumors. In this study biopsies and PBMCs of conjunctiva neoplasia patients along with nonneoplastic conjunctiva tissues have been analyzed for HHV8 sequences by PCR targeting ORF26. All amplimers were subjected to nucleotide sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. HHV8 DNA has been identified in 12 out of 48 (25%) HIV-positive, and in 2 out of 24 (8.3%) HIV-negative conjunctiva neoplastic tissues and in 4 out of 33 (12.1%) PBMC samples from conjunctiva neoplasia diseased patients as well as in 4 out of 60 (6.7%) nontumor conjunctiva tissues. The viral load ranged from 1 to 400 copies/105 cells. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the majority of HHV8 ORF26 amplimers clustered with subtypes R (n = 11) and B2 (n = 6). This variant distribution is in agreement with that of HHV8 variants previously identified in Ugandan KS cases. The presence of HHV8 in conjunctiva tumors from HIV-positive patients warrants further studies to test whether HHV8 products released by infected cells may have paracrine effects on the growth of conjunctiva lesions. © 2015 Noemy Starita et al.

Buonaguro L.,Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | Tornesello M.L.,Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | Buonaguro F.M.,Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology
Current HIV Research | Year: 2010

Particulate structures hold great promise for the development of effective and affordable recombinant prophylactic as well as therapeutic vaccines. Different types of particulate structures, including virus-like particles (VLPs) and virosomes, have been developed depending on the nature of the viral pathogen to be targeted and the type of immune response (humoral vs cellular) to be elicited. Particulate structures allow the insertion or fusion of foreign antigenic sequences, resulting in chimeric particles delivering foreign antigens on their surface. Similarly, they are used as carriers for foreign antigens, including non-protein antigens, via chemical conjugation. Particulate structures, indeed, represent a very efficient system for delivering antigens to antigen presenting cells (APC) which, in turn, trigger and amplify the adaptive immune response. The present review will address the biological and immunological properties of particulate structures, in particular VLPs, as platform for vaccine development. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Tornesello M.L.,Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | Buonaguro L.,Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | Buonaguro F.M.,Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology
Future Oncology | Year: 2015

Cancer molecular pathways are combinations of metabolic processes deregulated in neoplastic cells. Besides pathways specific to tissues from which cancers originate, common neoplastic traits are present among most tumors. Hanahan and Weinberg have described the most critical 'hallmarks' shared by many cancer types. In recent years, cancer stem cell specific properties and pathways have also been identified. Other altered pathways are peculiar of cancer type and cancer stage, even in different cancer stem cell types. In pathogen-related tumors, the alteration of inflammatory and immunologic response along with impairment of cell cycle control represents key molecular events of tumor progression. This article summarizes the recent discoveries of new altered pathways in cancer and their importance in cancer diagnosis and tailored therapies. © 2015 Future Medicine Ltd.

Buonaguro L.,Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | Tagliamonte M.,Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | Visciano M.L.,Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Virus-like particles (VLPs) presenting conformational envelope proteins on their surface represent an invaluable tool to study molecular interactions between viruses and cellular receptors/co-receptors, eliminating biological risks associated with working with live native viruses. The availability of target cells expressing speci fi c chemokine receptors facilitates the dissection of speci fi c interactions between humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral envelope proteins and these receptors in the laboratory. Here, we describe a method to evaluate HIV-VLP binding to cellular chemokine co-receptors, by carboxy fluorescein succinimidyl ester labeling and cellular uptake. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

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