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Sant'Ambrogio di Torino, Italy

Wolf K.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Stafoggia M.,Lazio Regional Health Service | Cesaroni G.,Lazio Regional Health Service | Andersen Z.J.,Danish Cancer Society | And 39 more authors.
Epidemiology | Year: 2015

Background: Long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality but little is known about the role of the chemical composition of PM. This study examined the association of residential long-term exposure to PM components with incident coronary events. Methods: Eleven cohorts from Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy participated in this analysis. 5,157 incident coronary events were identified within 100,166 persons followed on average for 11.5 years. Long-term residential concentrations of PM < 10 μm (PM10), PM < 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and a priori selected constituents (copper, iron, nickel, potassium, silicon, sulfur, vanadium, and zinc) were estimated with land-use regression models. We used Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for a common set of confounders to estimate cohort-specific component effects with and without including PM mass, and random effects meta-analyses to pool cohort-specific results. Results: A 100 ng/m increase in PM10 K and a 50 ng/m increase in PM2.5 K were associated with a 6% (hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval: 1.06 [1.01, 1.12]) and 18% (1.18 [1.06, 1.32]) increase in coronary events. Estimates for PM10 Si and PM2.5 Fe were also elevated. All other PM constituents indicated a positive association with coronary events. When additionally adjusting for PM mass, the estimates decreased except for K. Conclusions: This multicenter study of 11 European cohorts pointed to an association between long-term exposure to PM constituents and coronary events, especially for indicators of road dust. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Source

Matullo G.,Genomic Variation in Human Population and Complex Diseases Unit | Naccarati A.,Molecular and Genetic Epidemiology Unit | Pardini B.,Genomic Variation in Human Population and Complex Diseases Unit
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

Bladder cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by a high recurrence rate that necessitates continuous cystoscopic surveillance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are detectable in tissues and biofluids such as plasma/serum and urine. They represent promising biomarkers with potential not only for detecting BC but also informing on prognosis and monitoring treatment response. In this review, the many aspects of the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to evaluate miRNA expression in BC is discussed, including technical issues as well as a comparison with results obtained by qRT-PCR. The available studies investigating miRNA profiling in BC by NGS are described, with particular attention to the potential applicability on biofluids. Altered miRNA levels have been observed in BC tissues by NGS, but these results so far only partially overlapped among studies and with previous data obtained by qRT-PCR. The discrepancies can be ascribed to the small groups of BC patients sequenced. The few available studies on biofluids are mainly focused on implementing RNA isolation and sequencing workflow. Using NGS to analyze miRNAs in biofluids can potentially provide results comparable to tissues with no invasive procedures for the patients. In particular, the analyses performed on exosomes/microvesicles appear to be more informative. Thanks to the improvement of both wet-lab procedures and pipelines/tools for data analyses, NGS studies on biofluids will be performed on a larger scale. MiRNAs detected in urine and serum/plasma will demonstrate their potentiality to describe the variegated scenario of BC and to become relevant clinical markers. © 2015 UICC. Source

Trichopoulos D.,Harvard University | Trichopoulos D.,Academy of Athens | Bamia C.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Lagiou P.,Harvard University | And 53 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2011

Background To date, no attempt has been made to systematically determine the apportionment of the hepatocellular carcinoma burden in Europe or North America among established risk factors. Methods Using data collected from 1992 to 2006, which included 4409809 person-years in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), we identified 125 case patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, of whom 115 were matched to 229 control subjects. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for the association of documented risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma with incidence of this disease and estimated their importance in this European cohort. Results Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (OR = 9.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.10 to 39.50 and OR = 13.36, 95% CI = 4.11 to 43.45, respectively), obesity (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.06 to 4.29), former or current smoking (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 0.90 to 4.39 and OR = 4.55, 95% CI = 1.90 to 10.91, respectively), and heavy alcohol intake (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 0.73 to 4.27) were associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Smoking contributed to almost half of all hepatocellular carcinomas (47.6%), whereas 13.2% and 20.9% were attributable to chronic HBV and HCV infection, respectively. Obesity and heavy alcohol intake contributed 16.1% and 10.2%, respectively. Almost two-thirds (65.7%, 95% CI = 50.6% to 79.3%) of hepatocellular carcinomas can be accounted for by exposure to at least one of these documented risk factors. Conclusions Smoking contributed to more hepatocellular carcinomas in this Europe-wide cohort than chronic HBV and HCV infections. Heavy alcohol consumption and obesity also contributed to sizeable fractions of this disease burden. These contributions may be underestimates because EPIC volunteers are likely to be more health conscious than the general population. © 2011 The Author. Source

Aleksandrova K.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Pischon T.,Molecular Epidemiology Group | Jenab M.,International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC WHO | Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | And 59 more authors.
BMC Medicine | Year: 2014

Excess body weight, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and certain dietary factors are individually related to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk; however, little is known about their joint effects. The aim of this study was to develop a healthy lifestyle index (HLI) composed of five potentially modifiable lifestyle factors - healthy weight, physical activity, non-smoking, limited alcohol consumption and a healthy diet, and to explore the association of this index with CRC incidence using data collected within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.Methods: In the EPIC cohort, a total of 347,237 men and women, 25- to 70-years old, provided dietary and lifestyle information at study baseline (1992 to 2000). Over a median follow-up time of 12 years, 3,759 incident CRC cases were identified. The association between a HLI and CRC risk was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression models and population attributable risks (PARs) have been calculated.Results: After accounting for study centre, age, sex and education, compared with 0 or 1 healthy lifestyle factors, the hazard ratio (HR) for CRC was 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44 to 0.77) for two factors, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.89) for three factors, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.58 to 0.75) for four factors and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.54 to 0.74) for five factors; P-trend <0.0001. The associations were present for both colon and rectal cancers, HRs, 0.61 (95% CI: 0.50 to 0.74; P for trend <0.0001) for colon cancer and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.88; P-trend <0.0001) for rectal cancer, respectively (P-difference by cancer sub-site = 0.10). Overall, 16% of the new CRC cases (22% in men and 11% in women) were attributable to not adhering to a combination of all five healthy lifestyle behaviours included in the index.Conclusions: Combined lifestyle factors are associated with a lower incidence of CRC in European populations characterized by western lifestyles. Prevention strategies considering complex targeting of multiple lifestyle factors may provide practical means for improved CRC prevention. © 2014 Aleksandrova et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Slyskova J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Slyskova J.,Institute of Biology and Medical Genetics | Korenkova V.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Collins A.R.,University of Oslo | And 18 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: DNA repair capacity (DRC) is a determinant not only of cancer development but also of individual response to therapy. Previously, altered base and nucleotide excision repair (BER and NER) have been described in lymphocytes of patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. We, for the first time, evaluate both excision repair capacities in human colon biopsies to study their participation in colorectal tumorigenesis. Experimental design: Seventy pairs of tumor and adjacent healthy tissues were analyzed for BER- and NER-specificDRCby a comet repair assay. Tissue pairs were further compared for expression levels of a panel of 25 BER and NER genes complemented by their promoter methylation status. Results: We observed a moderate increase of NER-DRC (P = 0.019), but not of BER-DRC in tumors. There was a strong correlation between both tissues for all investigated parameters (P < 0.001). However, 4 NER (CSB, CCNH, XPA, XPD) and 4 BER (NEIL1, APEX1, OGG1, PARP1) genes showed a 1.08- to 1.28-fold change difference in expression in tumors (P < 0.05). Individual gene expression levels did not correlate with overall DRC, and we did not detect any aberrant methylation of the investigated genes. Conclusions: Our complex analysis showed that tumor cells are not deficient in BER and NER, but rather follow patterns characteristic for each individual and are comparable with adjacent tissue. Alteration of excision repair pathways is not a pronounced event in colorectal carcinogenesis. This study shows the feasibility of DRC evaluation in human solid tissues, representing a complex marker of multigene DNA repair processes. ©2012 AACR. Source

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