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Pechlaner R.,Innsbruck Medical University | Willeit P.,Innsbruck Medical University | Willeit P.,University of Cambridge | Summerer M.,Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology | And 20 more authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2015

Objective: The enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) exerts cytoprotective effects in response to various cellular stressors. A variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the HO-1 gene promoter region has previously been linked to cardiovascular disease. We examined this association prospectively in the general population.Approach and Results: Incidence of stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death was registered between 1995 and 2010 in 812 participants of the Bruneck Study aged 45 to 84 years (49.4% males). Carotid atherosclerosis progression was quantified by high-resolution ultrasound. HO-1 variable number tandem repeat length was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Subjects with 32 tandem repeats on both HO-1 alleles compared with the rest of the population (recessive trait) featured substantially increased cardiovascular disease risk (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 5.45 [2.39, 12.42]; P<0.0001), enhanced atherosclerosis progression (median difference in atherosclerosis score [interquartile range], 2.1 [0.8, 5.6] versus 0.0 [0.0, 2.2] mm; P=0.0012), and a trend toward higher levels of oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 (median oxidized phospholipids/apolipoprotein B level [interquartile range], 11364 [4160, 18330] versus 4844 [3174, 12284] relative light units; P=0.0554). Increased cardiovascular disease risk in those homozygous for 32 repeats was also detected in a pooled analysis of 7848 participants of the Bruneck, SAPHIR, and KORA prospective studies (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.26 [1.50, 7.33]; P=0.0043).Conclusions: This study found a strong association between the HO-1 variable number tandem repeat polymorphism and cardiovascular disease risk confined to subjects with a high number of repeats on both HO-1 alleles and provides evidence for accelerated atherogenesis and decreased antioxidant defense in this vascular high-risk group. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Brandstatter A.,Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology | Lamina C.,Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology | Kiechl S.,Innsbruck Medical University | Hunt S.C.,University of Utah | And 8 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2010

Background: High serum uric acid levels are associated with gout, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Three genes (SLC2A9, ABCG2, and SLC17A3) were reported to be involved in the regulation of uric acid levels. Research: Design and Methods: SNPs rs2231142 (ABCG2) and rs1165205 (SLC17A3) were genotyped in three cohorts (n= 4492) and combined with previously genotyped SNPs within SLC2A9 (rs6855911, rs7442295, rs6449213, rs12510549). Results: Each copy of the minor allele decreased uric acid levels by 0.30-0.38mg/dL for SLC2A9 (p values: 10-20-10-36) and increased levels by 0.34mg/dL for ABCG2 (p=1.1×10-16). SLC17A3 influenced uric acid levels only modestly. Together the SNPs showed graded associations with uric acid levels of 0.111mg/dL per risk allele (p=3.8×10-42). In addition, we observed a sex-specific interaction of age with the association of SLC2A9 SNPs with uric acid levels, where increasing age strengthened the association of SNPs in women and decreased the association in men. Conclusions: Genetic variants within SLC2A9, ABCG2 and SLC17A3 show highly significant associations with uric acid levels, and for SNPs within SLC2A9 this association is strongly modified by age and sex. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Heid I.M.,University of Regensburg | Heid I.M.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Henneman P.,Leiden University | Hicks A.,European Academy Bozen Bolzano EURAC | And 46 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2010

Objective: Plasma adiponectin is strongly associated with various components of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes. Concentrations are highly heritable and differ between men and women. We therefore aimed to investigate the genetics of plasma adiponectin in men and women. Methods: We combined genome-wide association scans of three population-based studies including 4659 persons. For the replication stage in 13795 subjects, we selected the 20 top signals of the combined analysis, as well as the 10 top signals with p-values less than 1.0 × 10-4 for each the men- and the women-specific analyses. We further selected 73 SNPs that were consistently associated with metabolic syndrome parameters in previous genome-wide association studies to check for their association with plasma adiponectin. Results: The ADIPOQ locus showed genome-wide significant p-values in the combined (p = 4.3 × 10-24) as well as in both women- and men-specific analyses (p = 8.7 × 10-17 and p = 2.5 × 10-11, respectively). None of the other 39 top signal SNPs showed evidence for association in the replication analysis. None of 73 SNPs from metabolic syndrome loci exhibited association with plasma adiponectin (p > 0.01). Conclusions: We demonstrated the ADIPOQ gene as the only major gene for plasma adiponectin, which explains 6.7% of the phenotypic variance. We further found that neither this gene nor any of the metabolic syndrome loci explained the sex differences observed for plasma adiponectin. Larger studies are needed to identify more moderate genetic determinants of plasma adiponectin. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Noureen A.,Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology | Fresser F.,Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology | Utermann G.,Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology | Schmidt K.,Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology | Schmidt K.,University of Tubingen
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Amazingly little sequence variation is reported for the kringle IV 2 copy number variation (KIV 2 CNV) in the human LPA gene. Apart from whole genome sequencing projects, this region has only been analyzed in some detail in samples of European populations. We have performed a systematic resequencing study of the exonic and flanking intron regions within the KIV 2 CNV in 90 alleles from Asian, European, and four different African populations. Alleles have been separated according to their CNV length by pulsed field gel electrophoresis prior to unbiased specific PCR amplification of the target regions. These amplicons covered all KIV 2 copies of an individual allele simultaneously. In addition, cloned amplicons from genomic DNA of an African individual were sequenced. Our data suggest that sequence variation in this genomic region may be higher than previously appreciated. Detection probability of variants appeared to depend on the KIV 2 copy number of the analyzed DNA and on the proportion of copies carrying the variant. Asians had a high frequency of so-called KIV 2 type B and type C (together 70% of alleles), which differ by three or two synonymous substitutions respectively from the reference type A. This is most likely explained by the strong bottleneck suggested to have occurred when modern humans migrated to East Asia. A higher frequency of variable sites was detected in the Africans. In particular, two previously unreported splice site variants were found. One was associated with non-detectable Lp(a). The other was observed at high population frequencies (10% to 40%). Like the KIV 2 type B and C variants, this latter variant was also found in a high proportion of KIV 2 repeats in the affected alleles and in alleles differing in copy numbers. Our findings may have implications for the interpretation of SNP analyses in other repetitive loci of the human genome. © 2015 Noureen et al. Source

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