Wooster, OH, United States
Wooster, OH, United States

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Stewart L.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Stewart L.R.,Ohio State University | Bouchard R.,Ohio State University | Redinbaugh M.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2012

Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) is an important and widespread aphid-transmitted virus of maize. It is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae with a monopartite (+) ssRNA genome. Here we report the complete genome sequence and construction and testing of infectious clones of an Ohio isolate of MDMV. Full-length MDMV cDNA was cloned into the vector pSPORT. Full-length cDNA PCR-amplified from the vector constructs were used as template for in vitro transcription, and transcripts were inoculated to maize seeds by vascular puncture inoculation. Plants inoculated by this procedure showed symptoms typical of MDMV infection, and infection was confirmed by RT-PCR and mechanical transmission to new plants. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Klein R.D.,College of Wooster | Chidawanyika T.,College of Wooster | Tims H.S.,College of Wooster | Tims H.S.,Messiah College | And 3 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2014

Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are molecular chaperones that protect cells from the effect of heat and other stresses. Some sHsps are also expressed at specific stages of development. In plants different classes of sHsps are expressed in the various cellular compartments. While the Class I (cytosolic) sHsps in wheat and pea have been studied extensively, there are fewer experimental data on Class II (cytosolic) sHsps, especially in maize. Here we report the expression and purification of two Class II sHsps from Zea mays ssp. mays L. (cv. Oh43). The two proteins have almost identical sequences, with the significant exception of an additional nine-amino-acid intervening sequence near the beginning of the N-terminus in one of them. Both ZmHsp17.0-CII and ZmHsp17.8-CII oligomerize to form dodecamers at temperatures below heat shock, and we were able to visualize these dodecamers with TEM. There are significant differences between the two sHsps during heat shock at 43. °C: ZmHsp17.8-CII dissociates into smaller oligomers than ZmHsp17.0-CII, and ZmHsp17.8-CII is a more efficient chaperone with target protein citrate synthase. Together with the previous observation that ZmHsp17.0-CII but not ZmHsp17.8-CII is expressed during development, we propose different roles in the cell for these two sHsps. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Wang H.,Ohio State University | Wijeratne A.,Molecular and Cellular Imaging Center | Wijeratne S.,Molecular and Cellular Imaging Center | Lee S.,Ohio State University | And 4 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2012

Background: Phytophthora sojae is the primary pathogen of soybeans that are grown on poorly drained soils. Race-specific resistance to P. sojae in soybean is gene-for-gene, although in many areas of the US and worldwide there are populations that have adapted to the most commonly deployed resistance to P. sojae (Rps) genes. Hence, this system has received increased attention towards identifying mechanisms and molecular markers associated with partial resistance to this pathogen. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified in the soybean cultivar 'Conrad' that contributes to the expression of partial resistance to multiple P. sojae isolates.Results: In this study, two of the Conrad QTL on chromosome 19 were dissected through sequence and expression analysis of genes in both resistant (Conrad) and susceptible ('Sloan') genotypes. There were 1025 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 87 of 153 genes sequenced from Conrad and Sloan. There were 304 SNPs in 54 genes sequenced from Conrad compared to those from both Sloan and Williams 82, of which 11 genes had SNPs unique to Conrad. Eleven of 19 genes in these regions analyzed with qRT-PCR had significant differences in fold change of transcript abundance in response to infection with P. sojae in lines with QTL haplotype from the resistant parent compared to those with the susceptible parent haplotype. From these, 8 of the 11 genes had SNPs in the upstream, untranslated region, exon, intron, and/or downstream region. These 11 candidate genes encode proteins potentially involved in signal transduction, hormone-mediated pathways, plant cell structural modification, ubiquitination, and basal resistance.Conclusions: These findings may indicate a complex defense network with multiple mechanisms underlying these two soybean QTL conferring resistance to P. sojae. SNP markers derived from these candidate genes can contribute to fine mapping of QTL and marker assisted breeding for resistance to P. sojae. © 2012 Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Cassone B.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Wijeratne S.,Molecular and Cellular Imaging Center | Michel A.P.,Ohio State University | Stewart L.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014

Background: Insects are the most important epidemiological factors for plant virus disease spread, with >75% of viruses being dependent on insects for transmission to new hosts. The black-faced leafhopper (Graminella nigrifrons Forbes) transmits two viruses that use different strategies for transmission: Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) which is semi-persistently transmitted and Maize fine streak virus (MFSV) which is persistently and propagatively transmitted. To date, little is known regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms in insects that regulate the process and efficiency of transmission, or how these mechanisms differ based on virus transmission strategy.Results: RNA-Seq was used to examine transcript changes in leafhoppers after feeding on MCDV-infected, MFSV-infected and healthy maize for 4 h and 7 d. After sequencing cDNA libraries constructed from whole individuals using Illumina next generation sequencing, the Rnnotator pipeline in Galaxy was used to reassemble the G. nigrifrons transcriptome. Using differential expression analyses, we identified significant changes in transcript abundance in G. nigrifrons. In particular, transcripts implicated in the innate immune response and energy production were more highly expressed in insects fed on virus-infected maize. Leafhoppers fed on MFSV-infected maize also showed an induction of transcripts involved in hemocoel and cell-membrane linked immune responses within four hours of feeding. Patterns of transcript expression were validated for a subset of transcripts by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using RNA samples collected from insects fed on healthy or virus-infected maize for between a 4 h and seven week period.Conclusions: We expected, and found, changes in transcript expression in G. nigrifrons feeding of maize infected with a virus (MFSV) that also infects the leafhopper, including induction of immune responses in the hemocoel and at the cell membrane. The significant induction of the innate immune system in G. nigrifrons fed on a foregut-borne virus (MCDV) that does not infect leafhoppers was less expected. The changes in transcript accumulation that occur independent of the mode of pathogen transmission could be key for identifying insect factors that disrupt vector-mediated plant virus transmission. © 2014 Cassone et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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