Hallerdei J.,Molecular and Cell Physiology |
Scheibe R.J.,Abteilung Physiologische Chemie |
Parkkila S.,University of Tampere |
Waheed A.,Washington University in St. Louis |
And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010
We have studied lactic acid transport in the fast mouse extensor digitorum longus muscles (EDL) by intracellular and cell surface pH microelectrodes. The role of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrases (CA) of EDL in lactic acid transport was investigated by measuring lactate flux in muscles from wildtype, CAIV-, CAIX- and CAXIV-single ko, CAIV-CAXIV double ko and CAIV-CAIX-CAXIV-triple ko mice. This was complemented by immunocytochemical studies of the subcellular localization of CAIV, CAIX and CAXIV in mouse EDL. We find that CAXIV and CAIX single ko EDL exhibit markedly but not maximally reduced lactate fluxes, whereas triple ko and double ko EDL show maximal or near-maximal inhibition of CAdependent lactate flux. Interpretation of the flux measurements in the light of the immunocytochemical results leads to the following conclusions. CAXIV, which is homogeneously distributed across the surface membrane of EDL fibers, facilitates lactic acid transport across this membrane. CAIX, which is associated only with T tubular membranes, facilitates lactic acid transport across the T tubule membrane. The removal of lactic acid from the lumen of T tubuli towards the interstitial space involves a CO2-HCO3 - diffusional shuttle that is maintained cooperatively by CAIX within the T tubule and, besides CAXIV, by the CAIV, which is strategically located at the opening of the T tubules. The data suggest that about half the CA-dependent muscular lactate flux occurs across the surface membrane, while the other half occurs across the membranes of the T tubuli. © 2010 Hallerdei et al.
Borchert B.,Molecular and Cell Physiology |
Tripathi S.,Molecular and Cell Physiology |
Francino A.,University of Barcelona |
Navarro-Lopez F.,University of Barcelona |
Kraft T.,Molecular and Cell Physiology
Cardiology Journal | Year: 2010
Background: In familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC), asymmetric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy has been considered to be the predominant phenotypic expression, whereas right ventricular (RV) involvement is still ambiguous. In most cases, the right ventricle remains unaffected until secondary pulmonary hypertension develops. Several FHC-causing mutations of genes encoding sarcomere-related proteins have been identified which are transmitted in an autosomal-dominant manner. Methods: We report the case of a 61 year old member of a Catalan family with a Arg723Gly missense mutation of the β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), that is associated with a malignant phenotype characterized by sudden cardiac death and heart failure. Because of progressive systolic LV dysfunction, the patient received a heart transplant in 2003. Results: Molecular analysis of the myocardial tissue of the explanted heart, taken from the left and right ventricle, showed a similar deviation of the ratio of mutant vs wild type mRNA of the β-MHC of 71.8 ± 5% and 68.5 ± 3%, respectively. This finding was confirmed for LV iopsies of this patient on protein level, showing a similar proportion of mutated b-myosin. But since the patient is heterozygous for the b-MHC mutation and the mutation is located in a coding region, the relative increase of the expression of the mutant allele is unexpected. It has been demonstrated before by our group for several β-MHC mutations that the relative abundance of mutated mRNA//protein correlates with the clinical severity of the disease. But since the right ventricle shows no (or only minor) manifestation in terms of hypertrophy or dysfunction, the level of mRNA and protein expression is not the only factor responsible for the development of the phenotype of FHC. Conclusions: Several mechanisms through which cardiac stresses may incite maladaptive cardiac remodeling primarily of the left ventricle that result in myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure are proposed. One of those triggers could be the enhanced work load of the left ventricle, especially if a LV outflow tract gradient is present, in contrast to the lesser demands to the right ventricle which is adapted to the low pressure system of the pulmonary circulation. Further studies are needed to confirm the results of this case, as well as functional studies involving both ventricles. © 2010 Via Medica.