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Eldoret, Kenya

Moi University is a Kenyan public university located in Eldoret, western Kenya. It was the second public university to be established in Kenya, after the University of Nairobi. It is one of seven fully fledged public institutions of higher learning in Kenya . It was established in 1984 by the Moi University Act of Parliament after recommendations from the Mackay Commission.As of 2007 it had over 20,000 students of whom 17,086 were undergraduates, and operates eight campuses and two constituent colleges. The chancellor of the university is Professor Miriam Were and the vice-chancellor is Professor Richard K. Mibey. Wikipedia.

To report on the trends and determinants of undernutrition among children <5 years old in Kenya. Data from four nationwide Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys, conducted in 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008-2009, were analysed. The Demographic and Health Survey utilizes a multistage stratified sampling technique. Nationwide covering rural and urban areas in Kenya. The analysis included 4757, 4433, 4892 and 4958 Kenyan children aged <5 years in 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2009-2009, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased by 4·6 percentage points from 39·9 % in 1993 to 35·3 % in 2008-2009, while underweight decreased by 2·7 percentage points from 18·7 % in 1993 to 16·0 % in 2008-2009. The effects of household wealth, maternal education and current maternal nutritional status on child nutrition outcomes have changed dynamically in more recent years in Kenya. Inadequate hygiene facilities increased the likelihood of chronic undernutrition in at least three of the surveys. Small size of the child at birth, childhood diarrhoea and male gender increased the likelihood of undernutrition in at least three of the surveys. Childhood undernutrition occurred concurrently with maternal overnutrition in some households. The analysis reveals a slow decline of undernutrition among young children in Kenya over the last three decades. However, stunting and underweight still remain of public health significance. There is evidence of an emerging trend of a malnutrition double burden demonstrated by stunted and underweight children whose mothers are overweight. Source

Karoney M.J.,Moi University
The Pan African medical journal

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a viral pandemic and a leading cause of chronic liver disease. This review highlights the epidemiology and management of Hepatitis C in Africa. We searched for articles on medline using the terms, "Hepatitis C", "Prevalence", "Epidemiology", "Africa" and "Treatment". The bibliographies of the articles found were used to find other references. We included articles published after 1995 only. The data was summarized and presented in tables and figures. Africa has the highest WHO estimated regional HCV prevalence (5.3%). Egypt has the highest prevalence (17.5%) of HCV in the world. Genotypes commonly found in Africa are 1, 4 and 5. Genotype 3 is found in Egypt and parts of Central Africa. Blood transfusion is a major means of acquisition of HCV infection. While treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin is recommended for patients with chronic HCV, no data were found on their use in Africa. Neither were there any data on definitive management (liver transplantation) for those with end stage disease. Data on HCV infection in Africa are scarce. This suggests that hepatitis C is still a neglected disease in many countries. Limited data exist in literature on HCV in Africa. Source

To determine the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene practices among school children in the study region This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out among primary school going children in Kapsaret Educational division, Uasin-Gishu District, Kenya. A researcher administered questionnaire was used to determine the oral health knowledge and practices in a random sample of 401 students in the period March to June 2002. 92% of the students claimed they brushed their teeth. About 48% brushed at least twice daily. More students (59.1%) reported using the chewing stick compared to those using commercial toothbrushes (p = 0.000).Female students brushed more frequently than their male counterparts (p = 0.000, chi2 = 24.65). 39.9% of the students knew the cause of tooth decay, 48.2% could state at least one method of prevention, while 16.5% knew the importance of teeth. Use of toothpaste was reported by 38.9% of the students. Less than half of the students knew the causes of tooth decay and how to prevent it. Only about half of the students brushed their teeth twice daily with the chewing stick being more frequently used. There is need to increase the oral health knowledge through well Planned school based oral health education programmes in the primary schools. This would hopefully lead to improvement on the oral hygiene practices. Source

Kimaiyo S.,Moi University
East African medical journal

The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that only 12% of men and 10% of women in sub-Saharan Africa have been tested for HIV and know their test results. Home-based counselling and testing (HBCT) offers a novel approach to complement facility-based provider initiated testing and counselling (PITC) and voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) and could greatly increase HIV prevention opportunities. However, there is almost no evidence that large-scale, door-to-door testing is even feasible in settings with both limited resources and significant stigma around HIV and AIDS. To describe our experience with the feasibility and acceptance of home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBCT) in two large, rural, administrative divisions of western Kenya. The USAID-AMPATH Partnership conducted population-based, house-to-house HIV counselling and testing in western Kenya between June 2007 and June 2009. All individuals aged > or = 13 years and all eligible children were offered HBCT. Children were eligible if they were above 13 years of age, and their mother was either HIV-positive or had unknown HIV serostatus, or if their mother was deceased or whose vital status was unknown. Kosirai and Turbo Divisions, Rift Valley Province, Kenya. There were 47,066 households approached in 294 villages: 97% of households allowed entry. Of the 138,026 individuals captured, 101,167 individuals were eligible for testing: 89% of adults and 58% of children consented to HIV testing. The prevalence of HIVin these communities was 3.0%: 2.7% in adults and 3.7% among children. Prevalence was highest in the 36-45 year age group and was almost always higher among women and girls. All persons testing HIV-positive were referred to Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) for further assessment and care; all consenting persons were counselled on HIV risk-lowering behaviours. Home-based HIV counselling and testing was feasible among this rural population in western Kenya, with a majority of the population accepting to get tested. These data suggest that scaling-up of HBCT is possible and may enable large numbers of individuals to know their HIV serostatus in sub-Saharan Africa. More research is needed to describe the cost-effectiveness and clinical impact of this approach. Source

Background: Maternal health is a public health priority in many African countries, but little is known about herbal medicine use in pregnancy. This study aimed to determine the pattern of use of herbal medicine in an urban setting, where women have relatively high access to public healthcare. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 333 women attending a childcare clinic in a district public health hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, during January and February, 2012, and who had delivered a baby within the past 9 months. Qualitative and quantitative data on herbal medicine use during their latest pregnancy were collected through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data was analysed descriptively and the Chi square test and Fishers' exact test used to analyse relationships among variables. Results: About 12% of women used herbal medicine during their most recent pregnancy. The use of herbal medicine was associated with a lower level of education (p = 0.007) and use before the index pregnancy (p <0.001). Only 12.5% of users disclosed such use to healthcare professionals, and about 20% used herbal medicine concomitantly with Western medicine for the same illness/condition. Women used herbal medicine for back pain, toothache, indigestion and infectious diseases, such as respiratory tract infections and malaria. A proportion of users took herbal medicine only to boost or maintain health. There were high rates of self-prescribing, as well as sourcing from family and friends. Beliefs about safety and efficacy were consistent with patterns of use or non-use, although both users and non-users were unsure about the safety and contraindications of Western medicine during pregnancy compared with that of herbal medicine. Conclusion: Herbal medicine is used by 12% of pregnant women with access to healthcare in an urban context in Kenya, and often occurs without the knowledge of healthcare practitioners. Healthcare professionals should play a role in rational use of both herbal and Western medicine, by discussing contraindications and the potential for drug-herb interactions with patients. More studies are needed into the use of herbal medicines during pregnancy, labour and the postpartum period in different geographical areas, and into the health outcomes associated with their use. Source

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