Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital

Eldoret, Kenya

Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital

Eldoret, Kenya
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Pastakia S.D.,Purdue University | Pekny C.R.,Purdue University | Manyara S.M.,Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital | Fischer L.,Indiana University
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy | Year: 2017

The global prevalence and impact of diabetes has increased dramatically, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This region faces unique challenges in combating the disease including lack of funding for noncommunicable diseases, lack of availability of studies and guidelines specific to the population, lack of availability of medications, differences in urban and rural patients, and inequity between public and private sector health care. Because of these challenges, diabetes has a greater impact on morbidity and mortality related to the disease in sub-Saharan Africa than any other region in the world. In order to address these unacceptably poor trends, contextualized strategies for the prevention, identification, management, and financing of diabetes care within this population must be developed. This narrative review provides insights into the policy landscape, epidemiology, pathophysiology, care protocols, medication availability, and health care systems to give readers a comprehensive summary of many factors in these domains as they pertain to diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to providing a review of the current evidence available in these domains, potential solutions to address the major gaps in care will be proposed to reverse the negative trends seen with diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa. © 2017 Pastakia et al.

Pastakia S.D.,Purdue University | Pastakia S.D.,Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital | Vincent III W.R.,Long Island University | Manji I.,Long Island University | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education | Year: 2011

Objective. To compare the clinical consultations provided by American and Kenyan pharmacy students in an acute care setting in a developing country. Methods. The documented pharmacy consultation recommendations made by American and Kenyan pharmacy students during patient care rounds on an advanced pharmacy practice experience at a referral hospital in Kenya were reviewed and classified according to type of intervention and therapeutic area. Results. The Kenyan students documented more interventions than American students (16.7 vs. 12.0 interventions/day) and provided significantly more consultations regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and antibiotics. The top area of consultations provided by American students was cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions. American and Kenyan pharmacy students successfully providing clinical pharmacy consultations in a resource-constrained, acute-care practice setting suggests an important role for pharmacy students in the reconciliation of prescriber orders with medication administration records and in providing drug information.

Mostert S.,VU University Amsterdam | Njuguna F.,Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital | Langat S.C.,Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital | Slot A.J.M.,VU University Amsterdam | And 6 more authors.
Psycho-Oncology | Year: 2014

Background The principal reason for childhood cancer treatment failure in low-income countries is treatment abandonment, the most severe form of nonadherence. Two often neglected factors that may contribute to treatment abandonment are as follows: (a) lack of information and guidance by doctors, along with the negative beliefs of family and friends advising parents, which contributes to misconceptions regarding cancer and its treatment, and (b) a widespread policy in public hospitals by which children are retained after doctor's discharge until medical bills are settled. Objective This study explored parents' experiences with hospital retention policies in a Kenyan academic hospital and the impact of attitudes of family and friends on parents' decisions about continuing cancer treatment for their child. Methods Home visits were conducted to interview parents of childhood cancer patients who had been diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and who had abandoned cancer treatment. Results Retrospective chart review revealed 98 children diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 whose parents had made the decisions to abandon treatment. During 2011-2012, 53 families (54%) could be reached, and 46 (87%) of these agreed to be interviewed. Parents reported the attitudes of community members (grandparents, relatives, friends, villagers, and church members); 61% believed that the child had been bewitched by some individual, and 74% advised parents to seek alternative treatment or advised them to stop medical treatment (54%). Parents also reported that they were influenced by discussions with other parents who had a child being treated, including that their child's life was in God's hands (87%), the trauma to the child and family of forced hospital stays (84%), the importance of completing treatment (81%), the financial burden of treatment (77%), and the incurability of cancer (74%). These discussions influenced their perceptions of cancer treatment and its usefulness (65%). Thirty-six families (78%) had no health insurance, and 19 of these parents (53%) could not pay their medical bills and were not allowed to take their child home when treatment ended. Parents reported feelings of desperation (95%), powerlessness (95%), and sadness (84%) and that their child has been imprisoned (80%), during the period of retention. The majority of parents (87%) felt that hospital retention of children must cease. Conclusions The attitudes and beliefs of parents of children with cancer are impacted by those close to them and their community and may influence their perceptions of cancer treatment and decisions to stop treatment. Hospital retention policies are highly distressing for parents and may contribute to both treatment delays and treatment abandonment. These factors jeopardize treatment outcomes for young patients and require attention and modification. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

O'Meara W.P.,George Washington University | Mangeni J.N.,Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital | Steketee R.,Voltaire | Greenwood B.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

The burden of malaria in countries in sub-Saharan Africa has declined with scaling up of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. To assess the contribution of specific malaria interventions and other general factors in bringing about these changes, we reviewed studies that have reported recent changes in the incidence or prevalence of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria control in southern Africa (South Africa, Mozambique, and Swaziland) began in the 1980s and has shown substantial, lasting declines linked to scale-up of specific interventions. In The Horn of Africa, Ethiopia and Eritrea have also experienced substantial decreases in the burden of malaria linked to the introduction of malaria control measures. Substantial increases in funding for malaria control and the procurement and distribution of effective means for prevention and treatment are associated with falls in malaria burden. In central Africa, little progress has been documented, possibly because of publication bias. In some countries a decline in malaria incidence began several years before scale-up of malaria control. In other countries, the change from a failing drug (chloroquine) to a more effective drug (sulphadoxine plus pyrimethamine or an artemisinin combination) led to immediate improvements; in others malaria reduction seemed to be associated with the scale-up of insecticide-treated bednets and indoor residual spraying. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Pastakia S.D.,Purdue University | Karwa R.,Purdue University | Kahn C.B.,Brown University | Nyabundi J.S.,Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: The initial focused effort on addressing the HIV pandemic in sub- Saharan Africa has helped set the groundwork for addressing many of the other areas of the health-care system requiring support in resource-constrained settings. With the growing prevalence of diabetes in this setting, the US Agency for International Development-Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare Partnership (USAID-AMPATH) has begun developing infrastructure to meet the growing need for diabetes care. OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of diabetes care in the rural, resourceconstrained setting of western Kenya and to analyze preliminary data on the current status of glucose control of patients. METHODS: Through partnerships, USAID-AMPATH has facilitated the provision of basic modalities of diabetes care, including reliable stocks of insulin, hemoglobin A1c (A1C) testing, and point-of-care glucose-testing supplies. RESULTS: Through the introduction of A1C testing, the poor quality of diabetes care was revealed, as the average A1C for the clinic population was 10.4%, with insulin-dependent patients constituting the majority of individuals with markedly elevated A1C levels. To address this, a contextualized electronic medical record and a cell phone-based home glucose monitoring program were created to improve glycemic control, which has led to significant reductions in A1C levels. CONCLUSIONS: Through the inclusion of clinical data within the electronic medical record, there is an ongoing effort to research various aspects of diabetes care in this understudied population, with the goal of addressing many of the unanswered questions surrounding diabetes care in sub-Saharan Africa. The lessons learned from this pilot program will be used to create sustainable infrastructure for diabetes care in partnership with the Kenyan government and will serve as a model for similar programs.

House D.R.,Indiana University | House D.R.,Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare | Ngetich E.,Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare | Ngetich E.,Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2013

Study objective: Validated methods for weight estimation of children are readily available in developed countries; however, their utility in developing countries with higher rates of malnutrition and infectious disease is unknown. The goal of this study is to determine the validity of a height-based estimate, the Broselow tape, compared with age-based estimations among pediatric patients in Western Kenya. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study of all sick children presenting to the emergency department of a government referral hospital in Eldoret, Kenya, was performed. Measured weight was compared with predicted weights according to the Broselow tape and commonly used advanced pediatric life support (APLS) and Nelson's age-based formulas. A Bland-Altman analysis was used to determine agreement between each method and actual weight. The method for weight prediction was determined a priori to be equivalent to the actual weight if the 95% confidence interval for the mean percentage difference between the predicted and actual weight was less than 10%. Results: Nine hundred sixty-seven children were included in analysis. The overall mean percentage difference for the actual weight and Broselow predicted weight was -2.2%, whereas APLS and Nelson's predictions were -5.2% and -10.4%, respectively. The overall agreement between Broselow color zone and actual weight was 65.5%, with overestimate typically occurring by only 1 color zone. Conclusion: The Broselow tape and APLS formula predict the weights of children in western Kenya. According to its better performance, ease of use, and provision of drug dosing and equipment size, the Broselow tape is superior to age-based formulas for estimation of weight in Kenyan children. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Emergency Physicians.

Mostert S.,VU University Amsterdam | Njuguna F.,Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital | Kemps L.,VU University Amsterdam | Strother M.,Indiana University | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Disease in Childhood | Year: 2012

Setting: Basic epidemiological information on childhood cancer in Western Kenya is lacking. This deficit obstructs efforts to improve the care and survival rates of children in this part of the world. Objective: Our study provides an overview of childhood cancer patients presenting for treatment in Western Kenya. Design: A retrospective analysis of childhood cancer patients presenting for treatment in Western Kenya was carried out using information from three separate databases at the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret. All patients aged 0-19 years first presenting between January 2006 and January 2010 with a newly diagnosed malignancy were included. Results: A total of 436 children with cancer were registered during the period. There were 256 (59%) boys and 180 (41%) girls with a male/female ratio of 1.4:1. The group aged 6-10 years contained most children (29%). Median age at admission was 8 years. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was the most common type of cancer (34%), followed by acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (15%), Hodgkin's lymphoma (8%), nephroblastoma (8%), rhabdomyosarcoma (7%), retinoblastoma (5%) and Kaposi's sarcoma (5%). Only four (1%) children with brain tumours were documented. Ewing's sarcoma was not diagnosed. Conclusions: Our study provides an overview of childhood cancer patients presenting for treatment in Western Kenya. The distribution of malignancies is similar to findings from other equatorial African countries but differs markedly from studies in high-income countries. The new comprehensive cancer registration system will be continued and extended to serve as the basis for an evidence-based oncology program. Eventually this may lead to improved clinical outcomes.

Mostert S.,VU University Amsterdam | Njuguna F.,Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital | Olbara G.,Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital | Sindano S.,Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2015

At the government, hospital, and health-care provider level, corruption plays a major role in health-care systems in Africa. The returns on health investments of international financial institutions, health organisations, and donors might be very low when mismanagement and dysfunctional structures of health-care systems are not addressed. More funding might even aggravate corruption. We discuss corruption and its effects on cancer care within the African health-care system in a sociocultural context. The contribution of high-income countries in stimulating corruption is also described. Corrupt African governments cannot be expected to take the initiative to eradicate corruption. Therefore, international financial institutions, health organisations, and financial donors should use their power to demand policy reforms of health-care systems in Africa troubled by the issue of corruption. These modifications will ameliorate the access and quality of cancer care for patients across the continent, and ultimately improve the outcome of health care to all patients. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Bloomfield G.S.,Duke University | Barasa F.A.,Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital | Doll J.A.,Duke University | Velazquez E.J.,Duke University
Current Cardiology Reviews | Year: 2013

The heart failure syndrome has been recognized as a significant contributor to cardiovascular disease burden in sub-Saharan African for many decades. Seminal knowledge regarding heart failure in the region came from case reports and case series of the early 20th century which identified infectious, nutritional and idiopathic causes as the most common. With increasing urbanization, changes in lifestyle habits, and ageing of the population, the spectrum of causes of HF has also expanded resulting in a significant burden of both communicable and non-communicable etiologies. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa is notable for the range of etiologies that concurrently exist as well as the healthcare environment marked by limited resources, weak national healthcare systems and a paucity of national level data on disease trends. With the recent publication of the first and largest multinational prospective registry of acute heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa, it is timely to review the state of knowledge to date and describe the myriad forms of heart failure in the region. This review discusses several forms of heart failure that are common in sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, pericardial disease, various dilated cardiomyopathies, HIV cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic car-diomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis, ischemic heart disease, cor pulmonale) and presents each form with regard to epidemiology, natural history, clinical characteristics, diagnostic considerations and therapies. Areas and approaches to fill the remaining gaps in knowledge are also offered herein highlighting the need for research that is driven by regional disease burden and needs. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children's Assessments Related to their Health and Well-Being (OSCAR) project is a longitudinal cohort of orphaned and non-orphaned children in Kenya. This paper will describe how CBPR approaches and principles can be incorporated and adapted into the study design and methods of a longitudinal epidemiological study in sub-Saharan Africa using this project as an example. The CBPR framework we used involves problem identification, feasibility and planning; implementation; and evaluation and dissemination. This case study will describe how we have engaged the community and adapted CBPR methods to OSCAR's Health and Well-being Project's corresponding to this framework in four phases: 1) community engagement, 2) sampling and recruitment, 3) retention, validation, and follow-up, and 4) analysis, interpretation and dissemination. To date the study has enrolled 3130 orphaned and separated children, including children living in institutional environments, those living in extended family or other households in the community, and street-involved children and youth. Community engagement and participation was integral in refining the study design and identifying research questions that were impacting the community. Through the participation of village Chiefs and elders we were able to successfully identify eligible households and randomize the selection of participants. The on-going contribution of the community in the research process has been vital to participant retention and data validation while ensuring cultural and community relevance and equity in the research agenda. CBPR methods have the ability to enable and strengthen epidemiological and public health research in sub-Saharan Africa within the social, political, economic and cultural contexts of the diverse communities on the continent. This project demonstrates that adaptation of these methods is crucial to the successful implementation of a community-based project involving a highly vulnerable population.

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