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Pearman T.P.,Northwestern University | Beaumont J.L.,Northwestern University | Paul D.,National Comprehensive Cancer Network | Abernethy A.P.,Duke University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management | Year: 2013

Context: The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck is a well-validated assessment of quality of life used with patients diagnosed with head and neck cancers (HCNs). The present study is an attempt to evaluate and modify this instrument as necessary in light of the recent regulatory guidelines from the Food and Drug Administration on the use of patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials. Objectives: Overall, the goal was to identify patients' highest priority cancer symptoms, compare these symptoms with those suggested by oncology experts, and construct a brief symptom index to assess these symptoms and categorize them as treatment-related, disease-related, or related to general function and well-being. Methods: Patients (N = 49) with advanced (Stages III and IV) HCNs were recruited from participating National Comprehensive Cancer Network institutions and community cancer support organizations in the Chicago area. Patients completed open-ended interviews and symptom checklists. Participating oncology physician experts also rated symptoms. Content validity was obtained by evaluating results alongside items in the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy system. Eleven oncologists categorized symptoms in terms of importance and also whether the symptoms were primarily related to disease, treatment, or functional well-being. Results: HCN-related symptoms endorsed as high priority by both patients and oncology experts were selected for the new National Comprehensive Cancer Network-Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck Cancer Symptom Index-22. The final version includes 22 items, which are broken down into disease-related symptoms, treatment side effects, or general function and well-being. The new scale has acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient alpha = 0.86), content validity for use in chemotherapy trials of patients with advanced disease, and concurrent validity as demonstrated by moderate-to-strong correlations with the existing Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy measure. Conclusion: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network-Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck Cancer Symptom Index-22 adequately reflects symptom and side effect concerns of advanced HCN patients as well as oncology physicians. This instrument can be used to evaluate the most important disease-related symptoms, treatment side effects, and function/well-being in patients with advanced HCNs in clinical practice and research. © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee.Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Matsushita N.,Moffitt Comprehensive Cancer Center | Matsushita N.,Tokyo Womens Medical University | Komine H.,Moffitt Comprehensive Cancer Center | Grolleau-Julius A.,University of Michigan | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy | Year: 2010

We reported that murine tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells (TP-DC) could elicit tumor-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vitro and in vivo. In some limited cases, TP-DC treatments in vivo could also result in regression of established subcutaneous tumors and lung metastases. By gene array analysis, we reported a high level of expression of a novel member of the cell surface class A scavenger receptor family, MARCO, by murine TP-DC compared to unpulsed DC. MARCO is thought to play an important role in the immune response by mediating binding and phagocytosis, but also in the formation of lamellipodia-like structures and dendritic processes. We have now examined the biologic and therapeutic implications of MARCO expressed by TP-DC. In vitro exposure of TP-DC to a monoclonal anti-MARCO antibody resulted in a morphologic change of rounding with disappearance of dendritic-like processes. TP-DC remained viable after anti-MARCO antibody treatment; had little, if any, change in production of IL-10, IL-12p70 and TNF-alpha; but demonstrated enhanced migratory capacity in a microchemotaxis assay. The use of a selective inhibitor showed MARCO expression to be linked to the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In vivo, anti-MARCO antibody treated TP-DC showed better trafficking from the skin injection site to lymph node, enhanced generation of tumor-reactive IFN-gamma producing T cells, and improved therapeutic efficacy against B16 melanoma. These results, coupled with our finding that human monocyte-derived DC also express MARCO, could have important implications to human clinical DC vaccine trials. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

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