Atlanta, GA, United States
Atlanta, GA, United States

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Robledo M.,Modulo Inc. | Pacchioni G.,University of Milan Bicocca | Martin F.,Modulo Inc. | Martin F.,Autonomous University of Madrid | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2015

We present a theoretical study of the adsorption of benzene C6H6 on the Cu(100) metal surface. The insulating effect of ionic films on this system has also been investigated by adsorbing C6H6 on the same surface covered with 1, 2, and 3 monolayers of NaCl. For this purpose, we employed density functional theory (DFT) including the van der Waals dispersion forces via a DFT-D2 scheme. For all the studied systems we analyzed the adsorption energies and geometries as well as the density of states in order to get a complete description of the type of binding, the charge transfer between the molecule and the surface, and the electronic level alignment after adsorption. We show that the molecule-substrate interaction is weak and mainly governed by dispersion forces, with an almost insignificant charge transfer between the substrate and the adsorbate. We found a progressive decoupling of the molecule from the metal surface when the size of the ultrathin insulating NaCl film increases. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Lopez-Escalante M.C.,University of Malaga | Caballero L.J.,Modulo Inc. | Martin F.,University of Malaga | Gabas M.,University of Malaga | And 2 more authors.
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells | Year: 2016

Crystalline Si solar cells as mounted in photovoltaic modules are historically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, protection against environmental exposure and electrical isolation. Nevertheless, new requirements in the final photovoltaic grid connection cannot successfully be reach by using this polymer current chemical composition. This phenomenon is known as the potential induced degradation (PID). Photovoltaic encapsulant industry has developed innovative materials to overcome this potential aging. One of these new materials is a thermoplastic commonly named as polyolefin. Photovoltaic modules using this encapsulation material have been fabricated in an industrial line and they have been subjected to PID tests. Our results demonstrate that polyolefin can successfully overcome PID test. Therefore it can be considered as a suitable EVA substitutive. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.All rights reserved.


Lopes F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Delicato F.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Batista T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Cavalcante E.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems | Year: 2014

In this paper, we present OpenCOPI (Open COntext Platform Integration), a Service-Oriented Architecture-based middleware platform that supports the integration of services provided by distinct sources, ranging from services offered by simple systems to more complex services provided by context-provision middleware. OpenCOPI offers selection and composition mechanisms to, respectively, select and compose services provided by different sources, considering applications of both Quality of Service and Quality of Context requirements. It also offers an adaptation mechanism that enables to adapt the application execution due to service failures, service quality fluctuation and user mobility. OpenCOPI allows the definition of applications in a higher abstraction level by the specification of a semantic workflow that contains abstract activities. This paper illustrates the use of OpenCOPI in an application from the Gas & Oil Industry and it also shows the evaluation of the main mechanisms of OpenCOPI: the service selection, composition, adaptation and workflow execution. © 2014 Taylor and Francis.


Cobreros C.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | Espinosa D.,Modulo Inc. | Hidalgo F.,Modulo Inc. | Manzano-Ramirez A.,CINVESTAV | Reyes J.L.,Autonomous University of Queretaro
BioResources | Year: 2014

Throughout history, energy consumption and the demand for resources have gradually increased. The construction industry, by direct or indirect actions, consumes over 50% of the energy produced, is responsible for 30% of the CO2 emissions, and consumes more raw material than any other industrial activity. Architecture alone cannot solve global environmental problems, but it can contribute significantly. A high recyclability rate can be achieved through the management of renewable natural materials or waste. The application of prefabricated building systems can be an economical solution, saving energy and reducing waste. This work presents the prefabricated compressed straw panel as part of a paradigm shift toward sustainable architecture, which offers the opportunity to use new materials and construction systems but takes local and specific circumstances into account. The density of cereal straw for use in prefabricated compressed straw panel production in Badajoz, Spain was also studied.


Brandao L.F.P.,Modulo Inc. | Braga J.W.B.,University of Brasilia | Suarez P.A.Z.,University of Brasilia
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2012

The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205. nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was efficient in the quantification of mixtures of up to three types of oils and fats, with RMSEP being obtained between 0.08 and 0.27% (v/v), mean precision between 0.07 and 0.32% (v/v) and minimum detectable concentration between 0.23 and 0.81% (v/v) depending on the type of oil or fat in the mixture determined. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


Perez-Jimenez F.,University of Barcelona | Valdes G.A.,University of Barcelona | Valdes G.A.,University of the Frontier | Botella R.,University of Barcelona | And 3 more authors.
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012

Fatigue is one of the most common causes of damage in bituminous pavements. However, since fatigue characterization requires complex cyclic tests, this property is not usually taken into account when designing bituminous mixtures. The present study introduces a new methodology to assess fatigue behavior of bituminous mixtures by means of a simpler procedure based on a new fracture test called Fénix. Several bituminous mixtures were tested at the Road Research Laboratory of the Technical University of Catalonia using the Fénix test and the three-point bending beam fatigue test, which complies with the new European standard UNE-EN 12697-24:2006. Results show that this new methodology assesses fatigue behavior of bituminous mixes by correlations between both tests. In addition, the procedure can be used to relate stiffness and dissipated energy parameters obtained in the cracking process, which allows the choice of mixtures with better fatigue performance considering the thermal conditions to which mixtures will be subjected during their service life. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Arostegui J.,Modulo Inc. | Hernandez C.,Modulo Inc. | Suazo H.,Modulo Inc. | Carcamo A.,Modulo Inc. | And 3 more authors.
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2011

Background: Four social audits in 1998, 2003, 2006 and 2009 identified actions that Nicaragua could take to reduce corruption and public perception in primary health care and other key services. Methods. In a 71-cluster sample, weighted according to the 1995 census and stratified by geographic region and settlement type, we audited the same five public services: health centres and health posts, public primary schools, municipal government, transit police and the courts. Some 6,000 households answered questions about perception and personal experience of unofficial and involuntary payments, payments without obtaining receipts or to the wrong person, and payments "to facilitate" services in municipal offices or courts. Additional questions covered complaints about corruption and confidence in the country's anti-corruption struggle. Logistic regression analyses helped clarify local variations and explanatory variables. Feedback to participants and the services at both national and local levels followed each social audit. Results: Users' experience of corruption in health services, education and municipal government decreased. The wider population's perception of corruption in these sectors decreased also, but not as quickly. Progress among traffic police faltered between 2006 and 2009 and public perception of police corruption ticked upwards in parallel with drivers' experience. Users' experience of corruption in the courts worsened over the study period - with the possible exception of Managua between 2006 and 2009 - but public perception of judicial corruption, after peaking in 2003, declined from then on. Confidence in the anti-corruption struggle grew from 50% to 60% between 2003 and 2009. Never more than 8% of respondents registered complaints about corruption. Factors associated with public perception of corruption were: personal experience of corruption, quality of the service itself, and the perception that municipal government takes community opinion into account and keeps people informed about how it uses public funds. Conclusions: Lowering citizens' perception of corruption in public services depends on reducing their experience of it, on improving service quality and access and - perhaps most importantly - on making citizens feel they are well-informed participants in the work of government. © 2011 Arosteguí et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


In this article, the results of the study of the matrix effect in the determination of metals calcium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, barium and lead in base oil using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDX) are presented. Sensitivities obtained for each calibration curve were evaluated where calcium, chromium, copper, cadmium, barium and lead had the lowest sensitivities. In the case of cadmium, this parameter was lagging and the studies were not carried forward. The curves of the other metals in different base oils were evaluated for linearity. The elements chromium, copper, molybdenum and lead showed linearity problems in some cases. Therefore, curves in different base oils showed distinct mathematical behavior where the matrix effect was confirmed. The other curves were evaluated and existence of the matrix effect attributed to interference of C/H ratio was confirmed in the quantification of all elements. Metals iron, nickel and zinc exhibited the highest sensitivity and determination coefficients, showing that the method has application potential. © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira de Quimica. All rights reserved.


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Modulo Inc. | Date: 2013-03-18

Prefabricated non-metallic transportable constructions for recycling centers, concrete. Construction of permanent edifices, masonry.


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