Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola
Yola, Nigeria
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El-Mahmood A.M.,Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola | Doughari J.H.,Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola | Kiman H.S.,Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola
African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Phytochemical screening of the Gmelina arborea reveals the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides. The presence of these bioactive compounds in plants is linked to biological activity. Determination of antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method showed that the crude extracts of the leave and stembark of the plant inhibited the growth of such recalcitrant pathogenic Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonieae, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella dysenteriea and Salmonella typhi that frequently show above average resistance, the extent of which depended on the solvent and organism. Activity of the extracts was consistently less than the conventional antibiotic, tetracycline. The effectiveness of the extracts was more in the acidic than in alkaline conditions and also increased with increase in temperature. Results provided the scientific bases for the folkloric application of G. arborea as a medicinal plant and ways the plant can be used as source for newer antibiotic substances for the possible control of dysentery, diarrhea, typhoid fever and wound infections associated with these bacteria. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Barminas J.T.,Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola | Osemeahon S.A.,Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2010

A low-formaldehyde-emission methylol urea/triethanolamine composite was synthesized through in situ esterification of formaldehyde with triethanolamine and subsequent copolymerization of the synthesized polyester with methylol urea. The effects of the addition of triethanolamine to the polymerization process on some physical properties of the synthesized copolymer were evaluated. The copolymer was characterized with IR spectroscopy and macrophase-separation techniques. At a given triethanolamine concentration, the composite exhibited macrophase-separation behavior between that of pure methylol urea and pure polyester. IR spectra showed the presence of the polyester moiety in the composite. The values of the moisture uptake, formaldehyde emission, melting point, and elongation at break of the copolymer were within acceptable levels required in the coating industry. Therefore, the methylol urea/polyester copolymer resin could have potential as a binder in the coating industry. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Osemeahon S.A.,Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2014

In this study, the effect of different types of polyol (PL) on some physical properties of monomethylol urea (MMU) resin is reported. Monomethylol Urea/diethylene glycol (MMU/DG), monomethylol urea/glycerol (MMU/G) and monomethylol urea/polyethylene glycol (MMU/PG) resins were prepared. Some physical properties namely refractive index, moisture uptake, melting point, viscosity, density, elongation at break and formaldehyde emission were investigated. Differences were recorded between the pure MMU and the monomethylol Urea/Polyol (MMU/PL) on one hand and among the different MMU/PL resins on the other hand. The values of viscosity, density, elongation at break, moisture uptake (MMU/G) and refractive index were higher than that of pure MMU resin while those of formaldehyde emission, melting and moisture uptake of MMU/PG and MMU/DG decreased with respect to MMU resin. This result present MMU/PG as the resin with the highest level of flexibility (elongation at break = 400% and melting point = 1600C) compared to the pure MMU moiety. This development will help to address the present problem of hardness associated with pure MMU resin and hence a potential binder for the coating industry.

Aliyu B.,Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola | Agnew B.,Northumbria University | Douglas S.,University of Nairobi
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2010

This work provides details of an activity undertaken to determine the relevant properties of Croton megalocarpus seeds as a source of vegetable oil and its prospects as a non-food crop source of biodiesel. C. megalocarpus is a tree indigenous to East Africa which grows up to a height of 35-40. m and produces seeds which contain 40-45% oil on a mass basis. The seeds were examined and properties determined that relate to their transport and storage/handling characteristics. Oil was extracted mechanically from the seeds using a hydraulic press and chemically from the pressing residue using petroleum ether. The combustion quality of the extracted crude vegetable oil such as the gross calorific value, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen content and ash content were then determined. This study indicates that the oil from the C. megalocarpus tree has a strong potential as a source of biodiesel. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Doughari J.H.,Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola
African Journal of Microbiology Research | Year: 2010

Antimicrobial activity of organic (methanol and chloroform) and aqueous stem back extracts of Erytrina senegalensis against some pathogenic microorganisms was investigated using the filter paper disc diffusion method. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, glycosides, phenols and alkaloids. The extracts demonstrated antimicrobial activity against both bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Penicillium notatum). For the bacteria, the highest activity (14 mm zone diameter of inhibition) was demonstrated against E. coli and the lowest activity (4 mm zone diameter of inhibition) against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, while for the test fungi, the highest activity of 8 and 6 mm (zone diameter of inhibition) was demonstrated against C. albicans and A. flavus respectively, and the lowest activity of 4 mm against P. notatum. The methanol extracts demonstrated the highest activity while, the aqueous extracts demonstrated the lowest activity against all the test organisms. The activity of the extracts increased with increase in temperature (4 - 100°C) and acidic pH, but decreased as the pH was adjusted toward alkalinity (pH 8 - 10). The MIC (7.5 - 30 mg/ml) and MMC (8.0 - 30.0) for bacteria, and MIC (7.5 - 40) and MMC (8.0 - 30.0) shows that E. senegalensis stem bark, if further purified can be used to source novel antibiotic substances for drug development against infections such as typhoid fever, urinary tract and wound infections, dysentery and mycotic infections. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Kareem S.A.,Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola
Journal of environmental science & engineering | Year: 2012

Recalcitrant organosulfur compounds such as Dibenzothiophene (DBT) and its derivatives in real petroleum fractions such as diesel cannot be removed by convectional hydrodesulfurization (HDS) treatment using metallic catalysts as well as extremes of conditions of high pressure and temperature. Biodesulfurization was identified as one of the possible routes for the removal of sulfur from middle distillate fractions of petroleum. The desulfurizing bacterium Desulfobacterium indolicum was isolated and subsequently identified by the Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Lagos, Nigeria. The bacterium exhibited very high desulfurizing ability towards diesel at 30 degrees C and normal atmospheric pressure. The biodesulfurization of diesel by Desulfobacterium indolicum resulted in reduction of sulfur from 166.037 ppm to 33.412 ppm over a period of 72 hours. Gas chromatography analysis with a pulsed flame photometric detector revealed that the peaks of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene significantly decreased after biodesulfurization. Thus, Desulfobacterium indolicum could effectively desulfurize diesel and therefore, may be a promising biocatalyst for practical biodesulfurization of diesel.

Doughari J.H.,Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Two Penicillium species namely, Penicillium oxalicum and Penicillium citrinum cultivated by solid surface fermentation method using rice bran homogenized with 0.5% (w/v) (NH 4) 2SO 4 solution as nitrogen source and Whatman no. 1 filter paper (WFP1) as substrate for β-glucanase enzyme production medium were found to show a dense growth. Studies on the enzyme, using soluble cellulose (SC) and methyl cellulose (MC) as cellulose-glucan source and Somogyi titrimetric method, revealed optimum temperature for enzyme activity from the Penicillium species, ranging from 50 to 55°C and thermostability of up to 70°C after 15 to 30 min incubation in sodium phosphate buffer. It was found that the metal ions (0.5 to 5.0 M) namely: Zn 2+, Cu 2+ and Hg 2+ did not enhance β-glucanase activity. Cu 2+ ions reduced the enzyme activity slightly, Zn 2+ ions had no effect, while Hg 2+ completely inhibited β-glucanase activity. β-Glucanase can be produced from some fungal species locally using the abundant agricultural wastes (such as rice bran) as substrates. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Maunde F.A.,Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2014

Development of motorized cowpea thresher was conducted based on previous studies. The conceptual, detailed and embodiment design was carried out with Autodesk Inventor Professional 10 software at Cranfield University, UK. The construction and performance evaluation was carried out at Centre for Equipment, Maintenance and Industrial Training (CEMIT) and threshing ground of Federal University of Technology, Yola (FUTY), Nigeria respectively. Quantity used for the performance test ranged from 50 g -250 g of cowpea varieties: indigenous brown (Variety A) and RMP-12 (Sampea -10) white (Variety B). Results showed that the average power requirement, drum speed and design throughput capacity for the motorized cowpea thresher 4.07 kW, 500 rpm and 468kg/hr respectively. The designed feed rate, is 0.5 kg / s, throughput capacity is 468 kg / hr and gross power is 4.0 kW (5.4 hp). Threshing efficiency (Te), Cleaning efficiency (Ce), Mechanical seeds damage (Md), Separation loss (SI), Throughput capacity (QC) and Mechanical efficiency (Ma) were 97%, 94%, 1.4%, 0.9%, 342 kg/hr & 73%, respectively. Issues on designs, cowpea threshing and how it can be improved have been discussed.

Adekola O.,Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola | Adekola O.,University of Leeds | Mitchell G.,University of Leeds | Grainger A.,University of Leeds
Ecosystem Services | Year: 2015

The Niger Delta wetlands are of international importance for their biodiversity, and support a large human population. The value and distribution of wetland ecosystem service benefits and costs across the three main stakeholder sectors (local community, government and corporate) were investigated. Results show that the net monetary value of the wetlands is $11,000 per delta household of which $9000 was generated as cash income supporting household activities such as education and healthcare. The total annual value of provisioning services to local people is approximately $25 billion, about three times the value of oil production in the region. However, local communities also bear about 75% of the environmental costs of oil extraction, equivalent to about 19% of the oil industry profit. Local people, who experience considerable economic hardship and lack alternative income sources, receive little compensation from the oil sector. These results highlight the importance of understanding not only the benefits provided by Niger Delta wetlands, but also the distribution of the environmental costs associated with their use. We conclude that ecosystem service valuation studies should give greater attention to the social distribution of identified values. Such distributional analyses, rarely available, provide insight into how sustainable natural resource management policy and practice could be better aligned to social justice concerns. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Adekola O.,University of Leeds | Adekola O.,Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola | Mitchell G.,University of Leeds
International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystems Services and Management | Year: 2011

The Niger Delta wetlands are changing rapidly, raising concern for the wetlands' health and for communities relying upon its ecosystem services. Knowledge on ecosystem service provision is important for effective ecosystem and livelihoods management, but is currently lacking for the Niger Delta. We synthesised literature and used the 'Drivers-pressure-state-impact-response' (DPSIR) framework to structure information on changes in the wetlands' ecosystem services and implications for dependent communities. The wetlands' ecosystem services are being eroded through oil and gas exploration, dredging, invasive plant infestation and wetland reclamation. This is exacerbated by rising demand for oil, population growth and weak governance. Mass fish migration, water pollution and reduction of wetland area are also evident, impacting ecosystem services and traditional livelihood systems. This has caused poverty; people have to buy goods that previously could be obtained from the wetlands. Effective wetland management will be aided by: recognition of ecosystem services' contributions to community well-being; understanding how benefits are distributed over time, space, stakeholder; and how these changes in response to pressures. Since key pressures in the wetland are anthropogenic, understanding the role of institutions in relation to the Niger Delta's ecosystem services is imperative. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

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