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Modesto, CA, United States

Lambert S.L.,MedImmune | Aslam S.,Merck | Stillman E.,Aragen Biosciences | MacPhail M.,Modesto Junior College | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Illness associated with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) remains an unmet medical need in both full-term infants and older adults. The fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV, which plays a key role in RSV infection and is a target of neutralizing antibodies, is an attractive vaccine target for inducing RSV-specific immunity. Methodology and Principal Findings BALB/c mice and cotton rats, two well-characterized rodent models of RSV infection, were used to evaluate the immunogenicity of intramuscularly administered RSV vaccine candidates consisting of purified soluble F (sF) protein formulated with TLR4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA), stable emulsion (SE), GLA-SE, or alum adjuvants. Protection from RSV challenge, serum RSV neutralizing responses, and anti-F IgG responses were induced by all of the tested adjuvanted RSV sF vaccine formulations. However, only RSV sF + GLA-SE induced robust F-specific T H1-biased humoral and cellular responses. In mice, these F-specific cellular responses include both CD4 and CD8 T cells, with F-specific polyfunctional CD8 T cells that traffic to the mouse lung following RSV challenge. This RSV sF + GLA-SE vaccine formulation can also induce robust RSV neutralizing titers and prime IFNã-producing T cell responses in Sprague Dawley rats. Conclusions/Significance These studies indicate that a protein subunit vaccine consisting of RSV sF + GLA-SE can induce robust neutralizing antibody and T cell responses to RSV, enhancing viral clearance via a TH1 immune-mediated mechanism. This vaccine may benefit older populations at risk for RSV disease. © 2015 Lambert et al. Source

Murov S.,Modesto Junior College
Journal of Chemical Education | Year: 2013

Experience from audience reactions indicates that most people cannot name the three most abundant gases in dry air. As this is relevant for an understanding of climate change, a demonstration involving mass determinations of equal volumes of four gases is provided to help the public understand that human activity is capable of increasing the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. © 2013 The American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Source

Murov S.,Modesto Junior College
Journal of Chemical Education | Year: 2013

The liquid-solid density relationship of the water-ice system is discussed as an example of an often-overlooked observation. The importance of making careful, complete, and unbiased observations is stressed. The anomalous behavior of water is shown with an image and a demonstration. © 2013 The American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Source

Billikopf G.,University of California at Merced | Gonzalez G.,Modesto Junior College
California Agriculture | Year: 2012

Dairy employees in the San Joaquin Valley are staying longer in their jobs. Our study in 2009 showed that the average length of employment has increased 250% since 1953 and 40% since 1984. However, tenures among non-Hispanic employees were twice as long as among Hispanic employees, suggesting there are opportunities to further increase workforce stability. The reasons why workers leave dairies are mostly the same as they were 30 and 60 years ago. We also compared our 2009 California interview results with recent studies in the eastern United States, where trends were similar. Source

Lucas E.A.,University of Arizona | Lucas E.A.,Modesto Junior College | Billington S.J.,University of Arizona | Billington S.J.,Ventana Medical Systems | And 3 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2010

Background. Arcanobacterium haemolyticum is an emerging bacterial pathogen, causing pharyngitis and more invasive infections. This organism expresses an unusual phospholipase D (PLD), which we propose promotes bacterial pathogenesis through its action on host cell membranes. The pld gene is found on a genomic region of reduced %G + C, suggesting recent horizontal acquisition. Results. Recombinant PLD rearranged HeLa cell lipid rafts in a dose-dependent manner and this was inhibited by cholesterol sequestration. PLD also promoted host cell adhesion, as a pld mutant had a 60.3% reduction in its ability to adhere to HeLa cells as compared to the wild type. Conversely, the pld mutant appeared to invade HeLa cells approximately two-fold more efficiently as the wild type. This finding was attributable to a significant loss of host cell viability following secretion of PLD from intracellular bacteria. As determined by viability assay, only 15.6% and 82.3% of HeLa cells remained viable following invasion by the wild type or pld mutant, respectively, as compared to untreated HeLa cells. Transmission electron microscopy of HeLa cells inoculated with A. haemolyticum strains revealed that the pld mutant was contained within intracellular vacuoles, as compared to the wild type, which escaped the vacuole. Wild type-infected HeLa cells also displayed the hallmarks of necrosis. Similarly inoculated HeLa cells displayed no signs of apoptosis, as measured by induction of caspase 3/7, 8 or 9 activities. Conclusions. These data indicate that PLD enhances bacterial adhesion and promotes host cell necrosis following invasion, and therefore, may be important in the disease pathogenesis of A. haemolyticum infections. © 2010 Lucas et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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