Modern Cell and Tissue Technologies Inc.

Gongneung dong, South Korea

Modern Cell and Tissue Technologies Inc.

Gongneung dong, South Korea
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Jang W.-H.,Amore Pacific | Jung K.-M.,Amore Pacific | Yang H.-R.,Ewha Womans University | Lee M.,Ewha Womans University | And 4 more authors.
Biomolecules and Therapeutics | Year: 2015

The eye irritation potential of drug candidates or pharmaceutical ingredients should be evaluated if there is a possibility of ocular exposure. Traditionally, the ocular irritation has been evaluated by the rabbit Draize test. However, rabbit eyes are more sensitive to irritants than human eyes, therefore substantial level of false positives are unavoidable. To resolve this species difference, several three-dimensional human corneal epithelial (HCE) models have been developed as alternative eye irritation test methods. Recently, we introduced a new HCE model, MCTT HCETM which is reconstructed with non-transformed human corneal cells from limbal tissues. Here, we examined if MCTT HCETM can be employed to evaluate eye irritation potential of solid substances. Through optimization of washing method and exposure time, treatment time was established as 10 min and washing procedure was set up as 4 times of washing with 10 mL of PBS and shaking in 30 mL of PBS in a beaker. With the established eye irritation test protocol, 11 solid substances (5 non-irritants, 6 irritants) were evaluated which demonstrated an excellent predictive capacity (100% accuracy, 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity). We also compared the performance of our test method with rabbit Draize test results and in vitro cytotoxicity test with 2D human corneal epithelial cell lines. © 2015 The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology.


Jung K.-M.,Amore Pacific | Lee S.-H.,Modern Cell and Tissue Technologies Inc. | Jang W.-H.,Amore Pacific | Jung H.-S.,Modern Cell and Tissue Technologies Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Toxicology in Vitro | Year: 2014

Several alternative in vitro methods to evaluate skin irritants have been developed recently. In July 2010, OECD officially endorsed the validated reference method (VRM) that uses reconstituted human epidermis (RhE) models as replacements for the in vivo skin irritation test. This study evaluated the KeraSkin™-VM model, a novel human epidermis model that was reconstructed with Asian skin tissue using 20 reference chemicals according to the OECD TG 439 performance standard. The test chemicals were applied to the epidermal surface side for 45. min and then rinsed, and then incubated for 42. h post-treatment. An overall accuracy of 80%, sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 70% were obtained when the results from KeraSkin™-VM were compared with UN GHS categories, which was comparable to the EpiDerm™ Skin irritation test (SIT) rates. Furthermore, KeraSkin™-VM demonstrated good performance in terms of within-laboratory reproducibility and predictive capacity to screen skin irritants. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Choi S.,Ewha Womans University | Choi S.,Chung - Ang University | Lee M.,Ewha Womans University | Lee S.-H.,Modern Cell and Tissue Technologies Inc. | And 6 more authors.
Archives of Toxicology | Year: 2015

Evaluation of the eye irritation is essential in the development of new cosmetic products. Draize rabbit eye irritation test has been widely used in which chemicals are directly applied to rabbit eye, and the symptoms and signs of eyes are scored. However, due to the invasive procedure, it causes substantial pain and discomfort to animals. Recently, we reported in vitro eye irritation test method using a 3D human corneal epithelial model (MCTT HCE™) which is reconstructed from remaining human tissues after a corneal transplantation. This model exhibited an excellent predictive capacity for 25 reference chemicals (sensitivity 100 %, specificity 77 % and accuracy 88 % vs. GHS). To improve the test performance, we explored new biomarkers for the eye irritation through transcriptomic approach. Three surfactants were selected as model eye irritants that include sodium lauryl sulfate, benzalkonium chloride and triton X-100. After test chemicals were treated, we investigated differentially expressed genes through a whole-gene microarray (Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Gene 2.0 ST Array, 48,000 probes). As a result, we identified that mRNAs of cornifelin (CNFN), a constituent of the insoluble cornified cell envelope of stratified squamous epithelia, and early growth response-1 (EGR1), a nuclear transcriptional regulator, were significantly up-regulated by all three irritants. Up-regulation of CNFN and EGR1 was further confirmed by Q-RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry revealed increased level of CNFN in irritant-treated tissues, supporting the relevance of CNFN and EGR1 as new biomarkers for eye irritation. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Ahn S.,Chosun University | Yoon H.,Chosun University | Kim G.,Chosun University | Kim Y.,Modern Cell and Tissue Technologies Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Tissue Engineering - Part C: Methods | Year: 2010

One of the challenges in tissue engineering is the development of a reproducible three-dimensional (3D) scaffold to support cell migration and infiltration. As a dermal substitute, 3D collagen scaffolds with precisely controlled pore structures were fabricated using an innovative cryogenic dispenser system. The scaffolds were composed of perpendicular, highly porous collagen strands in successive layers. The fabricated scaffolds were evaluated in an in vitro keratinocyte/fibroblast coculture test. Fibroblasts were well dispersed within the scaffold, and keratinocytes had completely migrated through the well-designed pore structure and differentiated on top of the scaffold surface. The differentiated keratinocytes generated a stratum corneum in the 3D dispensed scaffolds, similar to that in normal skin tissue. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Lee J.,Modern Cell and Tissue Technologies Inc. | Choi Y.-J.,Modern Cell and Tissue Technologies Inc. | Kim C.H.,Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences | Kim H.-Y.,Konkuk University | Son Y.,Kyung Hee University
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine | Year: 2011

In this study, we evaluated the accessibility of chitosan-based scaffold for tissue-engineered hyaline cartilage (TEHC) in vitro and in vivo using costal chondrocytes (CCs) as an alternative donor source. Acetylated chitosan scaffold (ACS) was prepared by the treatment of the porous chitosan scaffold (CS) with acetic anhydride. After acetylation of CS, the structural integrity and porosity were maintained but the strength of the scaffold was reduced and the dissolubility was increased. To evaluate the effectiveness of ACS as a scaffold for TEHC, ASCs with or without hyaluronic acid (HA) coating and commercial collagen scaffold (COL) as a control were used for cartilage reconstruction in vitro. In three-dimensional culture within sponge-form scaffolds, CCs re-differentiated to hyaline cartilage-like constructs, which were featured by GAG, type II collagen expression and lacunae-like structure. In contrast to no infiltration of inoculated CCs in the COL, extensive infiltration of CCs to the inner part of the scaffold was observed in ACSs with or without hyaluronic acid coating. For the in vivo evaluation of TEHC in the capacity to repair osteochondral defects, TEHC was transplanted to the full thickness cartilage defects made on the patellar grove of rabbit knee and was evaluated by immunohistological examination and Wakitani's histological scoring method of the regenerative tissues. TEHC successfully restored hyaline type cartilage and subchondral bone as well, in contrast to the fibrocartilage formation in the untreated control. In conclusion, ACSs serve a scaffold for the reconstruction of hyaline cartilage by inoculated CCs in vitro and also for the repair of osteochondral defect on the articular cartilage in vivo.


Kim G.,Chosun University | Ahn S.,Chosun University | Kim Y.,Modern Cell and Tissue Technologies Inc. | Cho Y.,Hallym University | Chun W.,Hallym University
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2011

Collagen is the most promising natural biomaterial and has been used in various tissue engineering applications for skin, bone, and cartilage because it provides good biocompatibility and low antigenicity. Although collagen is an excellent candidate material for various biomedical applications, its difficult processability and mechanical properties have remained important limitations. To overcome the problems, several methods including indirect printing combined with a sacrificing mold and low-temperature printing were suggested. However, it is difficult to fabricate precisely controlled 3D pore structure using the methods. In a previous study, we introduced a three-dimensional (3D) pore-structure-controlled collagen scaffold fabricated by a 3D dispensing system supplemented with a cryogenic and freeze-drying system. The fabricated scaffold had remarkably good cellular behaviour (cell migration and differentiation) but poor mechanical stability due to the highly porous structure consisting of micro-sized strands and poor mechanical nature of collagen. To overcome this deficiency, we designed a hybrid (core/shell) scaffold composed of an outer collagen and an inner alginate. The collagen/alginate scaffolds exhibited good structural stability (core-shell structure), increased Young's modulus about seven times compared to pure collagen scaffold under a similar pore-structure, and resulted in good cell viability, similar to a pure collagen scaffold. In an in vivo test, the hybrid scaffold was used as a dermal substitute and provided good granulation tissue formation and rapid vascularisation. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Kim G.H.,Chosun University | Ahn S.H.,Chosun University | Lee H.J.,Chosun University | Lee S.,Modern Cell and Tissue Technologies Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2011

Biomedical scaffolds have been widely used to regenerate various tissues and organs. One technology used for scaffold fabrication is rapid prototyping (RP), which has the advantage of easy control of the internal microstructure of scaffolds. However, scaffolds fabricated using RP technology show low resolution of struts and too smooth struts, which can deteriorate initial cell attachment and proliferation. To overcome this problem, we propose a hybrid technology combining a RP system and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) direct writing, which has been used to generate highly roughened microsized threads for enhanced cellular behavior with controllable mechanical properties. The resulting structure consists of alternating layers of microsized struts and highly roughened threads. The results of culturing osteoblast-like cells show significantly enhanced biological properties of the scaffold (approximately 2 times the cell viability and 2.5 times the bone mineralization) compared to the scaffolds fabricated using RP technology, and we believe that the combined process can be a promising method for fabricating three-dimensional biomedical scaffolds in soft and hard tissue regeneration. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Ahn S.,Chosun University | Lee S.,Modern Cell and Tissue Technologies Inc. | Cho Y.,Sacred Heart College | Chun W.,Sacred Heart College | Kim G.,Chosun University
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2011

Natural biopolymers, such as collagen or chitosan, are considered ideal for biomedical scaffolds. However, low processability of the materials has hindered the fabrication of designed pore structures controlled by various solid freeform-fabrication methods. A new technique to fabricate a biomedical three-dimensional collagen scaffold, supplemented with a sacrificial poly(ethylene oxide) mould is proposed. The fabricated collagen scaffold shows a highly porous surface and a three-dimensional structure with high porosity as well as mechanically stable structure. To show its feasibility for biomedical applications, fibroblasts/keratinocytes were co-cultured on the scaffold, and the cell proliferation and cell migration of the scaffold was more favorable than that obtained with a spongy-type collagen scaffold. © Springer-Verlag 2011.


Lee J.,Modern Cell and Tissue Technologies Inc. | Lee J.-Y.,Modern Cell and Tissue Technologies Inc. | Lee E.,Kyung Hee University | Son Y.,Kyung Hee University
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine | Year: 2011

In this study, we evaluated the potential usefulness of FGF-2-expanded costal chondrocytes (CCs) for the repair of osteochondral defect in articular cartilage. Rabbit CCs were expanded approximately 107 folds up to passage 8 in the FGF-2 supplemented medium and became fully dedifferentiated. Their capacity to redifferentiate to hyaline cartilage was tested by in vitro 3D culture in the collagen scaffold and in vivo transplantation in the osteochondral defect of the rabbit knee. Those fully dedifferentiated CCs, which were seeded to collagen scaffold were successfully redifferentiated to hyaline cartilage under the chondrocyte differentiation condition for two weeks, which was featured by lacunae formation and glycosaminoglycan expression. After transplantation to the full thickness defect of the rabbit knee, both dedifferentiated CCs and redifferentiated CCs in the collagen scaffold successfully repaired the cartilage defect. The repaired tissue was confirmed to be hyaline cartilage by re-expressions of type II collagen, GAG, and aggrecan as well as histological grading scale. In conclusion, FGF-2 expanded CCs were fully dedifferentiated but retain their inherent capacity to redifferentiate to hyaline cartilage.


Nam S.,Kyung Hee University | Cho W.,Kyung Hee University | Cho H.,Kyung Hee University | Lee J.,Modern Cell and Tissue Technologies Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Stem Cells Translational Medicine | Year: 2014

Reconstruction of elastic cartilage requires a source of chondrocytes that display a reliable differentiation tendency. Predetermined tissue progenitor cells are ideal candidates for meeting this need; however, it is difficult to obtain donor elastic cartilage tissue because most elastic cartilage serves important functions or forms external structures, making these tissues indispensable. We found vestigial cartilage tissue in xiphoid processes and characterized it as hyaline cartilage in the proximal region and elastic cartilage in the distal region. Xiphoid process-derived chondrocytes (XCs) showed superb in vitro expansion ability based on colony-forming unit fibroblast assays, cell yield, and cumulative cell growth. On induction of differentiation into mesenchymal lineages, XCs showed a strong tendency toward chondrogenic differentiation. An examination of the tissue-specific regeneration capacity of XCs in a subcutaneous-transplantation model and autologous chondrocyte implantation model confirmed reliable regeneration of elastic cartilage regardless of the implantation environment. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that xiphoid process cartilage, the only elastic cartilage tissue source that can be obtained without destroying external shape or function, is a source of elastic chondrocytes that show superb in vitro expansion and reliable differentiation capacity. These findings indicate that XCs could be a valuable cell source for reconstruction of elastic cartilage. © AlphaMed Press.

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