Gu M.,Nanjing Agricultural University |
Gu M.,MOA Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization in Lower Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River |
Chen A.,Nanjing Agricultural University |
Chen A.,MOA Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization in Lower Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River |
And 4 more authors.
It has been almost 25 years since the first report of the gene encoding a high-affinity phosphate transporter (PT), PHO84, in yeast. Since then, an increasing number of yeast PHO84 homologs as well as other genes encoding proteins with phosphate (Pi) transport activities have been identified and functionally characterized in diverse plant species. Great progress has been made also in deciphering the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of the abundance and/or activity of these genes and their products. The regulatory genes affect plant Pi homeostasis commonly through direct or indirect regulation of the abundance of PTs at different levels. However, little has been achieved in the use of PTs for developing genetically modified crops with high phosphorus use efficiency (PUE). This might be a consequence of overemphasizing Pi uptake from the rhizosphere and lack of knowledge about the roles of PTs in Pi transport and recycling within the plant that are required to optimize PUE. Here, we mainly focused on the genes encoding proteins with Pi transport activities and the emerging understanding of their regulation at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels. In addition, we propose potential strategies for effective use of PTs in improving plant growth and development. Proteins of several distinct families are responsible for the transport of phosphate across different membranes. Knowledge on their regulation at different levels is emerging. Here, we review current understanding of the regulation of phosphate transporters, and give a critical view of the gap between molecular mechanisms and practical use in an attempt to provide strategies for developing P-efficient crops. © 2016 The Authors. Source