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Gariepy T.D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Haye T.,CABI Inc | Fraser H.,Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food | Zhang J.,MoA CABI Joint Laboratory for Biosafety
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2014

Halyomorpha halys has recently established in countries outside of its Asian area of origin. In the North Eastern USA, this pest causes severe economic loss in agricultural crops. Breeding populations have been confirmed in Switzerland and Canada; however, their pathways of entry and genetic diversity remain unknown. To determine invasion pathways and source population(s), the diversity of specimens from Asia, North America, and Europe was investigated. Genetic diversity in Asia was higher than that in the Canada and Switzerland. Although three haplotypes were detected among Canadian H. halys, one haplotype dominated. In contrast, two out of three haplotypes were found frequently among Swiss samples. Based on molecular data and interception records it appears likely that H. halys in Canada is derived from the movement of established US populations. Further, North American populations likely originated from the Hebei/Beijing regions of China. The area of origin of the Swiss samples remains unclear. Although the dominant haplotype in Switzerland was consistent with Asian samples collected in the Hebei and Beijing provinces, it was not the dominant haplotype in these regions and further sampling is necessary to its confirm the distribution and abundance in the area of origin. The remaining two haplotypes were unique to Switzerland and no matches were found among our Asian samples. Interestingly, no haplotypes were shared between the North American and Swiss samples, indicating that the two invasions were separate and distinct events and did not result from the movement of goods and materials between USA and Europe. © 2013 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Source


Gariepy T.D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Haye T.,CABI Inc | Zhang J.,MoA CABI Joint Laboratory for Biosafety
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2014

Evaluation of host-parasitoid associations can be tenuous using conventional methods. Molecular techniques are well placed to identify trophic links and resolve host-parasitoid associations. Establishment of the highly invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), outside Asia has prompted interest in the use of egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) as biological control agents. However, little is known regarding their host ranges. To address this, a DNA barcoding approach was taken wherein general PCR primers for Scelionidae and Pentatomidae were developed to amplify and sequence >500-bp products within the DNA barcoding region of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene that would permit the identification of key players in this association. Amplification of DNA from Pentatomidae and Scelionidae was consistent across a broad range of taxa within these families, and permitted the detection of Scelionidae eggs within H. halys 1 h following oviposition. In laboratory assays, amplification and sequencing of DNA from empty, parasitized eggs was successful for both host (100% success) and parasitoid (50% success). When applied to field-collected, empty egg masses, the primers permitted host identification in 50-100% of the eggs analysed, and yielded species-level identifications. Parasitoid identification success ranged from 33 to 67% among field-collected eggs, with genus-level identification for most specimens. The inability to obtain species-level identities for these individuals is due to the lack of coverage of this taxonomic group in public DNA sequence databases; this situation is likely to improve as more species are sequenced and recorded in these databases. These primers were able to detect and identify both pentatomid host and scelionid parasitoid in a hyperparasitized egg mass, thereby clarifying trophic links otherwise unresolved by conventional methodology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Haye T.,CABI Inc | Haye T.,MoA CABI Joint Laboratory for Biosafety | Fischer S.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil | Zhang J.,MoA CABI Joint Laboratory for Biosafety | Gariepy T.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2015

Halyomorpha halys was accidentally introduced into Switzerland around 2004 and has recently spread to several additional areas in Europe, with established populations documented in France, Italy, Greece and Hungary. To test whether generalist egg parasitoids of European Pentatomidae have the potential to control H. halys, and whether these could be as effective as their related Asian species, sentinel egg masses of H. halys and six native European pentatomids were exposed in two regions of Switzerland. Freeze-killed sentinel egg masses of H. halys were attacked by the platygastrid Trissolcus cultratus and the eupelmid Anastatus bifasciatus, whereas fresh egg masses of native Pentatomidae occassionally yielded four Scelionidae species: Trissolcus semistriatus, T. scutellaris, T. cultratus and Telenomus chloropus. In no-choice tests, T. chloropus and T. semistratus produced no offspring from fresh H. halys eggs, whereas T. cultratus and T. scutellaris were sporadically able to complete development. Stopping embryogenesis by freezing egg masses of H. halys at -80 °C enabled T. cultratus and T. semistriatus to produce a high number of offspring without influencing the behaviour of the parasitoids. In contrast to European platygastrids, the Asian parasitoids Trissolcus japonicus and T. cultratus (Chinese strain) caused significantly higher parasitism of fresh H. halys eggs. Differences in developmental success may be related to less efficient venom of European scelionids injected during oviposition. To date, A. bifasciatus is the only potential candidate for augmentaive biological control of H. halys in Europe as it was the only European parasitoid capable of consistent, successful development on fresh H. halys eggs. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Haye T.,MoA CABI Joint Laboratory for Biosafety | Cuthbertson A.G.S.,Fera | Wang X.G.,University of California at Berkeley | Daane K.M.,University of California at Berkeley | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2016

After its arrival in 2008, the Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, has emerged as a harmful invasive insect pest in North America and Europe. This highly polyphagous pest is a major threat to many economically important fruit crops and is also known to develop on a wide variety of natural host plants. In Asia, Europe and North America, different control measures are applied against SWD, such as chemical, biological, and cultural control. Current controls of SWD rely primarily on the application of insecticides, but cultural management tactics such as sanitation and the use of nets provide a good alternative in some crops. Biological control measures, such as conservation of existing natural enemies in invaded areas, introduction of specialized larval parasitoids from Asia for classical biological control and the use of indigenous parasitoids for augmentative control, are currently being investigated and may become an important management tool in the near future for an area-wide control of SWD. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source


Haye T.,MoA CABI Joint Laboratory for Biosafety | Fischer S.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil | Zhang J.,MoA CABI Joint Laboratory for Biosafety | Gariepy T.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2015

Halyomorpha halys was accidentally introduced into Switzerland around 2004 and has recently spread to several additional areas in Europe, with established populations documented in France, Italy, Greece and Hungary. To test whether generalist egg parasitoids of European Pentatomidae have the potential to control H. halys, and whether these could be as effective as their related Asian species, sentinel egg masses of H. halys and six native European pentatomids were exposed in two regions of Switzerland. Freeze-killed sentinel egg masses of H. halys were attacked by the platygastrid Trissolcus cultratus and the eupelmid Anastatus bifasciatus, whereas fresh egg masses of native Pentatomidae occassionally yielded four Scelionidae species: Trissolcus semistriatus, T. scutellaris, T. cultratus and Telenomus chloropus. In no-choice tests, T. chloropus and T. semistratus produced no offspring from fresh H. halys eggs, whereas T. cultratus and T. scutellaris were sporadically able to complete development. Stopping embryogenesis by freezing egg masses of H. halys at -80 °C enabled T. cultratus and T. semistriatus to produce a high number of offspring without influencing the behaviour of the parasitoids. In contrast to European platygastrids, the Asian parasitoids Trissolcus japonicus and T. cultratus (Chinese strain) caused significantly higher parasitism of fresh H. halys eggs. Differences in developmental success may be related to less efficient venom of European scelionids injected during oviposition. To date, A. bifasciatus is the only potential candidate for augmentaive biological control of H. halys in Europe as it was the only European parasitoid capable of consistent, successful development on fresh H. halys eggs. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

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