Meka P.B.,Osmania University |
Jarjapu S.,Osmania University |
Nanchari S.R.,Osmania University |
Edathara P.M.,Osmania University |
And 8 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2015
LCN2 (Lipocalin 2) is a 25 KD secreted acute phase protein, reported to be a novel regulator of angiogenesis in breast cancer. Up regulation of LCN2 had been observed in multiple cancers including breast cancer, pancreatic cancer and ovarian cancer. However, the role of LCN2 promoter methylation in the formation of microvessels is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of LCN 2 promoter methylation with microvessel formation and tumor cell proliferation in breast cancer patients. The LCN2 promoter methylation status was studied in 64 breast cancer tumors by methylation specific PCR (MSP). Evaluation of microvessel density (MVD) and Ki67 cell proliferation index was achieved by immunohistochemical staining using CD34 and MIB-1 antibodies, respectively. LCN2 promoter unmethylation status was observed in 43 (67.2%) of breast cancer patients whereas LCN2 methylation status was seen in 21 (32.8%). Further, LCN2 promoter unmethylation status was associated with aggressive tumor phenotype and elevated mean MVD in breast cancer patients.
Pramesh C.S.,Tata Memorial Center |
Badwe R.A.,Tata Memorial Center |
Borthakur B.B.,Dr B Borooah Cancer Institute |
Chandra M.,Kamala Nehru Memorial Hospital |
And 18 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2014
The delivery of affordable and equitable cancer care is one of India's greatest public health challenges. Public expenditure on cancer in India remains below US®10 per person (compared with more than US®100 per person in high-income countries), and overall public expenditure on health care is still only slightly above 1% of gross domestic product. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for more than three-quarters of cancer expenditures in India, are one of the greatest threats to patients and families, and a cancer diagnosis is increasingly responsible for catastrophic expenditures that negatively affect not only the patient but also the welfare and education of several generations of their family. We explore the complex nature of cancer care systems across India, from state to government levels, and address the crucial issues of infrastructure, manpower shortages, and the pressing need to develop cross-state solutions to prevention and early detection of cancer, in addition to governance of the largely unregulated private sector and the cost of new technologies and drugs. We discuss the role of public insurance schemes, the need to develop new political mandates and authority to set priorities, the necessity to greatly improve the quality of care, and the drive to understand and deliver cost-effective cancer care programmes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Kavela S.,DNA Diagnostics Center |
Shinde S.R.,DNA Diagnostics Center |
Ratheesh R.,DNA Diagnostics Center |
Viswakalyan K.,DNA Diagnostics Center |
And 10 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013
PTEN is a well-defined tumor suppressor gene that antagonizes the PI3K/Akt pathway to regulate a multitude of cellular processes, such as survival, growth, motility, invasiveness, and angiogenesis. While the functions of PTEN have been studied extensively, the regulation of its activity during normal and disease conditions still remains incompletely understood. In this study, we identified the protein phosphatase-1 nuclear targeting subunit PNUTS (PPP1R10) as a PTEN-associated protein. PNUTS directly interacted with the lipid-binding domain (C2 domain) of PTEN and sequestered it in the nucleus. Depletion of PNUTS leads to increased apoptosis and reduced cellular proliferation in a PTEN-dependent manner. PNUTS expression was elevated in certain cancers compared with matched normal tissues. Collectively, our studies reveal PNUTS as a novel PTEN regulator and a likely oncogene. ©2012 AACR.
Ayyangar K.,International Cancer Center |
Rani R.,International Cancer Center |
Kumar A.,MNJ Institute of Oncology |
Reddy A.,International Cancer Center
Journal of Medical Physics | Year: 2014
An automated Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) system has been developed as add-on for the cobalt-60 teletherapy machines available in India. The goal of the present computational study is to validate the MLC design using Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. The study was based on the Kirloskar-supplied Phoenix model machines that closely match the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) theratron-80 machine. The MLC is a retrofit attachment to the collimator assembly, with 14 non-divergent leaf pairs of 40 mm thick, 7 mm wide, and 150 mm long tungsten alloy plates with rounded edges and 20 mm tongue and 2 mm groove in each leaf. In the present work, the source and collimator geometry has been investigated in detail to arrive at a model that best represents the measured dosimetric data. The authors have studied in detail the proto-I MLC built for cobalt-60. The MLC field sizes were MC simulated for 2 × 2 cm 2 to 14 × 14 cm 2 square fields as well as irregular fields, and the percent depth dose (PDD) and profile data were compared with ROPS † treatment planning system (TPS). In addition, measured profiles using the IMATRIXX system‡ were also compared with the MC simulations. The proto-I MLC can define radiation fields up to 14 × 14 cm within 3 mm accuracy. The maximum measured leakage through the leaf ends in closed condition was 3.4% and interleaf leakage observed was 7.3%. Good agreement between MC results, ROPS and IMATRIXX results has been observed. The investigation also supports the hypothesis that optical and radiation field coincidence exists for the square fields studied with the MLC. Plots of the percent depth dose (PDD) data and profile data for clinically significant irregular fields have also been presented. The MC model was also investigated to speed up the calculations to allow calculations of clinically relevant conformal beams.
Sha R.L.,The Indo American Cancer Institute and Research Center |
Sha R.L.,Osmania University |
Reddy P.Y.,Osmania University |
Rao R.,MNJ Institute of Oncology |
And 2 more authors.
Medical Dosimetry | Year: 2011
High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for carcinoma of the uterine cervix often results in high doses being delivered to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) such as the rectum and bladder. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine and closely monitor the dose delivered to these OARs. In this study, we measured the dose delivered to the rectum by intracavitary applications and compared this measured dose to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements rectal reference point dose calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS). To measure the dose, we inserted a miniature (0.1 cm 3) ionization chamber into the rectum of 86 patients undergoing radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. The response of the miniature chamber modified by 3 thin lead marker rings for identification purposes during imaging was also characterized. The difference between the TPS-calculated maximum dose and the measured dose was <5% in 52 patients, 5-10% in 26 patients, and 10-14% in 8 patients. The TPS-calculated maximum dose was typically higher than the measured dose. Our study indicates that it is possible to measure the rectal dose for cervical carcinoma patients undergoing HDR-ICBT. We also conclude that the dose delivered to the rectum can be reasonably predicted by the TPS-calculated dose. © 2011 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists.
Vinod C.,Osmania University |
Jyothy A.,Osmania University |
Vijay Kumar M.,MNJ Institute of Oncology |
Raghu Raman R.,MNJ Institute of Oncology |
And 2 more authors.
Tumor Biology | Year: 2013
Transformation growth factor β1 is a multipotent cytokine that mediates the development, differentiation, and neoplasm of the mammary gland. TGF β1 is known to exert both tumor suppressive and progressive effect at different stages of carcinogenesis. Several studies have shown the association of TGF β1 expression with breast cancer markers like estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Her2/neu. TGF β1 expression is known to be influenced by -509C/T promoter polymorphism. Hence, the present study is aimed to evaluate the possible role of TGF β1 -509C/T promoter polymorphism in breast cancer and its association with ER, PR, and Her2 status based on case-control study in South Indian population from Andhra Pradesh. Our study revealed a significant increase of CT genotype in breast cancer patients compared to controls (CT vs. CC: χ 2 = 6.054, P = 0.014, OR 2.005, 95 % CI 1.182-3.403). However, there was no correlation between TGF β1 -509C/T polymorphism and other factors like age at onset, ER, PR, Her2 status, etc. Further, CT genotype was found to be associated with increased risk in advanced stages of breast cancer (CC vs. CT: OR 2.315, 95 % CI 1.143-4.688) and a border line significance with postmenopausal women (CT vs. CC: χ 2 = 3.128, P = 0.07, OR 2.095, 95 % CI 0.991-4.428). © 2012 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM).
Suresh A.V.S.,MNJ Institute of Oncology |
Varma P.P.,Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology |
Sinha S.,MNJ Institute of Oncology |
Deepika S.,MNJ Institute of Oncology |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2010
Background: One of the most distressing complications of head and neck cancer patients on chemoradiotherapy is mucositis. There is no proper tool to predict its occurrence in these patients. Aim: This study was conducted to develop a risk-scoring system to predict probable incidence and severity of mucositis in head and neck cancer patients on chemoradiotherapy. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis conducted at a tertiary care cancer center with approximately 2,000 new cases of head and neck cancer patients annually. We Hypothesized were age, comorbid conditions, leukocyte count, nutritional status, oral hygiene, tobacco use, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); Eastern cooperative oncology group (ECOG) performance status (PS) and TNM (tumor, node, metastasis) stage as possible risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn to predict the cutoff values for risk factors, and a final scoring system was developed with sensitivity and specificity data. Results: A total of 218 patients on chemoradiation receiving cisplatin 40 mg/m 2 /week along with local radiation of 60-70 Gy depending on primary site were analyzed. Based on ROC analysis, the following cutoff values were selected: age > 40 years, ECOG PS > 2, WBC < 3000/L, elevated ESR, albumin < 3 gm/dL and > stage III disease. The remaining factors were indicated as present or absent. A score of 1 was assigned for the above risk factors. For patients, the final score of 3 or less there is 17% probability of developing grade 3 or 4 mucositis, while patients having score of 6 or more have 76% probability. Conclusion: The current tool is fairly accurate in predicting development of mucositis in head and neck caner patients on chemoradiotherapy. This will further help clinicians to adopt preventive strategies as well as better counseling.
PubMed | National Institute of Nutrition and MNJ Institute of Oncology
Type: | Journal: Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) | Year: 2016
The incidence of breast cancer in India is on the rise and is rapidly becoming the primary cancer in Indian women. The aldoketo reductase (AKR) family has more than 190 proteins including aldose reductase (AKR1B1) and aldose reductase like protein (AKR1B10). Apart from liver cancer, the status of AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 with respect to their expression and activity has not been reported in other human cancers. We studied the specific activity and expression of AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 in breast non tumor and tumor tissues and in the blood. Fresh post-surgical breast cancer and non-cancer tissues and blood were collected from the subjects who were admitted for surgical therapy. Malignant, benign and pre-surgical chemotherapy samples were evaluated by histopathology scoring. Expression of AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 was carried out by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) while specific activity was determined spectrophotometrically. The specific activity of AKR1B1 was significantly higher in red blood cells (RBC) in all three grades of primary surgical and post-chemotherapy samples. Specific activity of both AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 increased in tumor samples compared to their corresponding non tumor samples (primary surgical and post-chemotherapy). Immunoblotting and IHC data also indicated overexpression of AKR1B1 in all grades of tumors compared to their corresponding non tumor samples. There was no change in the specific activity of AKR1B1 in benign samples compared to all grades of tumor and non-tumors.
PubMed | MNJ Institute of Oncology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of cancer research and therapeutics | Year: 2011
One of the most distressing complications of head and neck cancer patients on chemoradiotherapy is mucositis. There is no proper tool to predict its occurrence in these patients.This study was conducted to develop a risk-scoring system to predict probable incidence and severity of mucositis in head and neck cancer patients on chemoradiotherapy.This is a retrospective analysis conducted at a tertiary care cancer center with approximately 2,000 new cases of head and neck cancer patients annually. We Hypothesized were age, comorbid conditions, leukocyte count, nutritional status, oral hygiene, tobacco use, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); Eastern cooperative oncology group (ECOG) performance status (PS) and TNM (tumor, node, metastasis) stage as possible risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn to predict the cutoff values for risk factors, and a final scoring system was developed with sensitivity and specificity data.A total of 218 patients on chemoradiation receiving cisplatin 40 mg/m2 /week along with local radiation of 60-70 Gy depending on primary site were analyzed. Based on ROC analysis, the following cutoff values were selected: age > 40 years, ECOG PS > 2, WBC < 3000/L, elevated ESR, albumin < 3 gm/dL and > stage III disease. The remaining factors were indicated as present or absent. A score of 1 was assigned for the above risk factors. For patients, the final score of 3 or less there is 17% probability of developing grade 3 or 4 mucositis, while patients having score of 6 or more have 76% probability.The current tool is fairly accurate in predicting development of mucositis in head and neck cancer patients on chemoradiotherapy. This will further help clinicians to adopt preventive strategies as well as better counseling.
Attili S.V.,MNJ Institute of Oncology |
Ananda B.B.,Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology |
Mandapal T.,MNJ Institute of Oncology |
Anjaneyulu V.,MNJ Institute of Oncology |
And 2 more authors.
Gastrointestinal Cancer Research | Year: 2011
Background: Treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) changed significantly with the advent of targeted therapy with imatinib. Clear markers predictive of response to imatinib therapy and disease-free survival in patients with GIST have not been identified. Even RECIST criteria are inadequate for predicting response to therapy, especially in patients with stable disease. Data collected at a tertiary care cancer center from 2003 to 2005 in south India were analyzed retrospectively to assess clinical, pathologic, and cytogenetic profiles of patients with GIST. In addition, radiologic responses to therapy were evaluated for correlation with the disease-free survival. Methods: GIST was defined as a mesenchymal spindle/epitheloid cell lesion arising in the GI tract with CD117 positivity. Only data from patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease were analyzed. Clinical and pathologic details of the patients were noted from case records. NCCN guidelines were followed for the treatment. Radiologic response to therapy was reassessed according to RECIST, and progression- free survival calculated for all analyzed patients using intent-totreat analysis. Results: The mean age of presentation was 42.8 ± 5.3 years (24-60), with a male-to-female ratio of 1.5:1. Small intestine was the most common disease site (60%), followed by stomach (20%), mesentery (7.2%), colorectal regions (7.2%), and other sites (5.6%). The most frequent pathologic finding in patients having recurrence was high mitotic rate. Initial tumor size (either in the metastatic setting or in local recurrence) had no bearing on progression-free or overall survival, nor did initial anatomic location or site of metastasis. Histologically, however, patients with a mixed-cell morphology had shorter survival compared to the other morphologies. Those patients having any cytogenetic abnormality had worse outcome compared to those with normal karyotype. Similarly, among patients who achieved remission, those who did so within 12 weeks had better overall survival than did those with a delayed time to remission. Overall survival of patients having stable disease and late partial responses (after 3 months) was similar and superior to survival for patients whose disease progressed while on therapy. Conclusion: GISTs characterized by a high mitotic rate and mixed-cell morphology and any cytogenetic abnormalities are associated with poorer outcome. Similarly, shorter time to response was more important than the actual response to therapy. Initial disease site, the site of metastasis, and tumor size had no bearing on outcomes to therapy. © 2011 by International Society of Gastrointestinal Oncology.