Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Providence, RI, United States

Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Providence, RI, United States
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Menniti F.S.,Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Lindsley C.W.,Vanderbilt University | Conn P.J.,Vanderbilt University | Pandit J.,Pfizer | And 3 more authors.
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

Schizophrenia is a highly debilitating mental disorder which afflicts approximately 1% of the global population. Cognitive and negative deficits account for the lifelong disability associated with schizophrenia, whose symptoms are not effectively addressed by current treatments. New medicines are needed to treat these aspects of the disease. Neurodevelopmental, neuropathological, genetic, and behavioral pharmacological data indicate that schizophrenia stems from a dysfunction of glutamate synaptic transmission, particularly in frontal cortical networks. A number of novel pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms affecting glutamatergic synaptic transmission have emerged as viable targets for schizophrenia. While developing orthosteric glutamatergic agents for these targets has proven extremely difficult, targeting allosteric sites of these targets has emerged as a promising alternative. From a medicinal chemistry perspective, allosteric sites provide an opportunity of finding agents with better drug-like properties and greater target specificity. Furthermore, allosteric modulators are better suited to maintaining the highly precise temporal and spatial aspects of glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Herein, we review neuropathological and genomic/genetic evidence underscoring the importance of glutamate synaptic dysfunction in the etiology of schizophrenia and make a case for allosteric targets for therapeutic intervention. We review progress in identifying allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors, NMDA receptors, and metabotropic glutamate receptors, all with the aim of restoring physiological glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Challenges remain given the complexity of schizophrenia and the difficulty in studying cognition in animals and humans. Nonetheless, important compounds have emerged from these efforts and promising preclinical and variable clinical validation has been achieved. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.


Uthayathas S.,Emory University | Masilamoni G.J.,Emory University | Shaffer C.L.,Pfizer | Schmidt C.J.,Pfizer | And 2 more authors.
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2014

Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is highly expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons of both the direct and indirect output pathways. Similar to dopamine D2 receptor antagonists acting on indirect pathway neurons, PDE10A inhibitors have shown behavioral effects in rodent models that predict antipsychotic efficacy. These findings have supported the clinical investigation of PDE10A inhibitors as a new treatment for schizophrenia. However, PDE10A inhibitors and D2 antagonists differ in effects on direct pathway and other neurons of the basal ganglia, indicating that these two drug classes may have divergent antipsychotic efficacy and side effect profile. In the present study, we compare the behavioral effects of the selective PDE10A inhibitor MP-10 to those of the clinical standard D2 antagonist risperidone in rhesus monkeys using a standardized motor disability scale for parkinsonian primates and a newly designed "Drug Effects on Nervous System" scale to assess non-motor effects. Behavioral effects of MP-10 correlated with its plasma levels and its regulation of metabolic activity in striatal and cortical regions as measured by FDG-PET imaging. While MP-10 and risperidone broadly impacted similar behavioral domains in the primate, their effects had a different underlying basis. MP-10-treated animals retained the ability to respond but did not engage tasks, whereas risperidone-treated animals retained the motivation to respond but were unable to perform the intended actions. These findings are discussed in light of what is currently known about the modulation of striatal circuitry by these two classes of compounds, and provide insight into interpreting emerging clinical data with PDE10A inhibitors for the treatment of psychotic symptoms.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Blokland A.,Maastricht University | Menniti F.S.,Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Prickaerts J.,Maastricht University
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents | Year: 2012

There has been an increasing interest in the development of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors for the treatment of cognitive dysfunctions. In this editorial, the mechanism of action of PDEs is briefly described, while the effects of different PDE inhibitors in preclinical models are reviewed. Based on the expression of PDE mRNA in the human brain, it is suggested that PDE1 and PDE10 inhibitors are strong candidates for the development of cognition enhancers. However, the complex nature of the expression of PDEs in the brain warrants further research into the role of PDEs in the signaling pathways in brain circuits. The development of PDE inhibitors, which are selective for PDE splicing isoforms, may be promising for future drug development. © Informa UK, Ltd.


Richter W.,University of California at San Francisco | Menniti F.S.,Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Zhang H.-T.,West Virginia University | Conti M.,University of California at San Francisco
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets | Year: 2013

Introduction: The second messengers cAMP and cGMP mediate fundamental aspects of brain function relevant to memory, learning, and cognitive functions. Consequently, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs), the enzymes that inactivate the cyclic nucleotides, are promising targets for the development of cognition-enhancing drugs. Areas covered: PDE4 is the largest of the 11 mammalian PDE families. This review covers the properties and functions of the PDE4 family, highlighting procognitive and memory-enhancing effects associated with their inactivation. Expert opinion: PAN-selective PDE4 inhibitors exert a number of memory- and cognition-enhancing effects and have neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties in preclinical models. The major hurdle for their clinical application is to target inhibitors to specific PDE4 isoforms relevant to particular cognitive disorders to realize the therapeutic potential while avoiding side effects, in particular emesis and nausea. The PDE4 family comprises four genes, PDE4A-D, each expressed as multiple variants. Progress to date stems from characterization of rodent models with selective ablation of individual PDE4 subtypes, revealing that individual subtypes exert unique and non-redundant functions in the brain. Thus, targeting specific PDE4 subtypes, as well as splicing variants or conformational states, represents a promising strategy to separate the therapeutic benefits from the side effects of PAN-PDE4 inhibitors. © Informa UK, Ltd.


Traynelis S.F.,Emory University | Wollmuth L.P.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | McBain C.J.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development | Menniti F.S.,CyclicM LLC | And 7 more authors.
Pharmacological Reviews | Year: 2010

The mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptor family encodes 18 gene products that coassemble to form ligand-gated ion channels containing an agonist recognition site, a transmembrane ion permeation pathway, and gating elements that couple agonist-induced conformational changes to the opening or closing of the permeation pore. Glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and are localized on neuronal and non-neuronal cells. These receptors regulate a broad spectrum of processes in the brain, spinal cord, retina, and peripheral nervous system. Glutamate receptors are postulated to play important roles in numerous neurological diseases and have attracted intense scrutiny. The description of glutamate receptor structure, including its transmembrane elements, reveals a complex assembly of multiple semiautonomous extracellular domains linked to a pore-forming element with striking resemblance to an inverted potassium channel. In this review we discuss International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology glutamate receptor nomenclature, structure, assembly, accessory subunits, interacting proteins, gene expression and translation, post-translational modifications, agonist and antagonist pharmacology, allosteric modulation, mechanisms of gating and permeation, roles in normal physiological function, as well as the potential therapeutic use of pharmacological agents acting at glutamate receptors.


Jones K.A.,Cyanaptic LLC | Menniti F.S.,Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Sivarao D.V.,Bristol Myers Squibb
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2015

Neuroscience has made tremendous progress delineating the cellular and molecular processes important for understanding neuronal development and behavior, but this knowledge has been slow to translate to new treatments for psychiatric illness. To accelerate this transfer of knowledge to the human condition requires the wide-scale adoption of biomarkers that can bridge preclinical and clinical discoveries, and serve as surrogate measures of efficacy before commencing expensive phase III studies. Several biomarker methodologies, including imaging, electroencephalography (EEG), and blood transcriptomics/proteomics, are now showing promise. From an industry perspective, we highlight the utility of quantitative EEG as one example of a translatable biomarker applicable to psychiatric drug development and discuss recent insights into glutamate system dysfunction in schizophrenia and depression gained through translational studies of the drug ketamine. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.


Patent
Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Date: 2014-09-26

Compounds that selectively negatively modulate NMDA receptors containing an NR2A subunit, pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compounds, and methods of treating a disease using the compounds are disclosed.


Patent
Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Date: 2014-09-26

Compounds that selectively negatively modulate NMDA receptors containing an NR1/NR2B subunit, pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compounds, and methods of treating a disease using the compounds are disclosed.


Patent
Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Luc Therapeutics | Date: 2014-09-26

Compounds that selectively negatively modulate NMDA receptors containing an NR2A subunit, pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compounds, and methods of treating a disease using the compounds are disclosed.


Loading Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. collaborators
Loading Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. collaborators