Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Providence, RI, United States

Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Providence, RI, United States

Time filter

Source Type

Richter W.,University of California at San Francisco | Menniti F.S.,Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Zhang H.-T.,West Virginia University | Conti M.,University of California at San Francisco
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets | Year: 2013

Introduction: The second messengers cAMP and cGMP mediate fundamental aspects of brain function relevant to memory, learning, and cognitive functions. Consequently, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs), the enzymes that inactivate the cyclic nucleotides, are promising targets for the development of cognition-enhancing drugs. Areas covered: PDE4 is the largest of the 11 mammalian PDE families. This review covers the properties and functions of the PDE4 family, highlighting procognitive and memory-enhancing effects associated with their inactivation. Expert opinion: PAN-selective PDE4 inhibitors exert a number of memory- and cognition-enhancing effects and have neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties in preclinical models. The major hurdle for their clinical application is to target inhibitors to specific PDE4 isoforms relevant to particular cognitive disorders to realize the therapeutic potential while avoiding side effects, in particular emesis and nausea. The PDE4 family comprises four genes, PDE4A-D, each expressed as multiple variants. Progress to date stems from characterization of rodent models with selective ablation of individual PDE4 subtypes, revealing that individual subtypes exert unique and non-redundant functions in the brain. Thus, targeting specific PDE4 subtypes, as well as splicing variants or conformational states, represents a promising strategy to separate the therapeutic benefits from the side effects of PAN-PDE4 inhibitors. © Informa UK, Ltd.


Gresack J.E.,University of California at San Diego | Gresack J.E.,Rockefeller University | Seymour P.A.,Pfizer | Seymour P.A.,Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Psychopharmacology | Year: 2014

Rationale: Inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), an enzyme highly expressed in medium spiny neurons of the mammalian striatum, enhance activity in direct (dopamine D1 receptor-expressing) and indirect (D2 receptor-expressing striatal output) pathways. The ability of such agents to act to potentiate D1 receptor signaling while inhibiting D2 receptor signaling suggest that PDE10A inhibitors may have a unique antipsychotic-like behavioral profile differentiated from the D2 receptor antagonist-specific antipsychotics currently used in the treatment of schizophrenia. Objectives: To evaluate the functional consequences of PDE10A inhibitor modulation of D1 and D2 receptor pathway signaling, we compared the effects of a PDE10A inhibitor (TP-10) on D1 and D2 receptor agonist-induced disruptions in prepulse inhibition (PPI), a measure of sensorimotor gating disrupted in patients with schizophrenia. Results: Our results indicate that, in rats: (1) PDE10A inhibition (TP-10, 0.32-10.0 mg/kg) has no effect on PPI disruption resulting from the mixed D1/D2 receptor agonist apomorphine (0.5 mg/kg), confirming previous report; (2) Yet, TP-10 blocked the PPI disruption induced by the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg); and attenuated apomorphine-induced disruptions in PPI in the presence of the D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.005 mg/kg). Conclusions: These findings indicate that TP-10 cannot block dopamine agonist-induced deficits in PPI in the presence of D1 activation and suggest that the effect of PDE10A inhibition on D1 signaling may be counterproductive in some models of antipsychotic activity. These findings, and the contribution of TP-10 effects in the direct pathway on sensorimotor gating in particular, may have implications for the potential antipsychotic efficacy of PDE10A inhibitors. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Traynelis S.F.,Emory University | Wollmuth L.P.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | McBain C.J.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development | Menniti F.S.,CyclicM LLC | And 7 more authors.
Pharmacological Reviews | Year: 2010

The mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptor family encodes 18 gene products that coassemble to form ligand-gated ion channels containing an agonist recognition site, a transmembrane ion permeation pathway, and gating elements that couple agonist-induced conformational changes to the opening or closing of the permeation pore. Glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and are localized on neuronal and non-neuronal cells. These receptors regulate a broad spectrum of processes in the brain, spinal cord, retina, and peripheral nervous system. Glutamate receptors are postulated to play important roles in numerous neurological diseases and have attracted intense scrutiny. The description of glutamate receptor structure, including its transmembrane elements, reveals a complex assembly of multiple semiautonomous extracellular domains linked to a pore-forming element with striking resemblance to an inverted potassium channel. In this review we discuss International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology glutamate receptor nomenclature, structure, assembly, accessory subunits, interacting proteins, gene expression and translation, post-translational modifications, agonist and antagonist pharmacology, allosteric modulation, mechanisms of gating and permeation, roles in normal physiological function, as well as the potential therapeutic use of pharmacological agents acting at glutamate receptors.


Nagy D.,Yale University | Stoiljkovic M.,Yale University | Menniti F.S.,Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Hajos M.,Yale University
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2016

Ketamine, a pan-NMDA receptor channel blocker, and CP-101,606, an NR2B-selective negative allosteric modulator, have antidepressant effects in humans that develop rapidly after the drugs are cleared from the body. It has been proposed that the antidepressant effect of ketamine results from delayed synaptic potentiation. To further investigate this hypothesis and potential mechanistic underpinnings we compared the effects of ketamine and CP-101,606 on neurophysiological biomarkers in rats immediately after drug administration and after the drugs had been eliminated. Local field and auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded from primary auditory cortex and hippocampus in freely moving rats. Effects of different doses of ketamine or CP-101,606 were evaluated on amplitude of AEPs, auditory gating, and absolute power of delta and gamma oscillations 5-30 min (drug-on) and 5-6 h (drug-off) after systemic administration. Both ketamine and CP-101,606 significantly enhanced AEPs in cortex and hippocampus in the drug-off phase. In contrast, ketamine but not CP-101,606 disrupted auditory gating and increased gamma-band power during the drug-on period. Although both drugs affected delta power, these changes did not correlate with increase in AEPs in the drug-off phase. Our findings show that both ketamine and CP-101,606 augment AEPs after drug elimination, consistent with synaptic potentiation as a mechanism for antidepressant efficacy. However, these drugs had different acute effects on neurophysiological parameters. These results have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms for the rapid-onset antidepressant effects of NMDA receptor inhibition and for the use of electrophysiological measures as translatable biomarkers. © 2016 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.


Giampa C.,Santa Lucia Foundation Hospital at the European Center for Brain Research | Laurenti D.,Santa Lucia Foundation Hospital at the European Center for Brain Research | Anzilotti S.,Santa Lucia Foundation Hospital at the European Center for Brain Research | Bernardi G.,Santa Lucia Foundation Hospital at the European Center for Brain Research | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Huntington's disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition for which there is no therapy to slow disease progression. The particular vulnerability of striatal medium spiny neurons to Huntington's pathology is hypothesized to result from transcriptional dysregulation within the cAMP and CREB signaling cascades in these neurons. To test this hypothesis, and a potential therapeutic approach, we investigated whether inhibition of the striatal-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE10A would alleviate neurological deficits and brain pathology in a highly utilized model system, the R6/2 mouse. Methodology/Principal Findings: R6/2 mice were treated with the highly selective PDE10A inhibitor TP-10 from 4 weeks of age until euthanasia. TP-10 treatment significantly reduced and delayed the development of the hind paw clasping response during tail suspension, deficits in rotarod performance, and decrease in locomotor activity in an open field. Treatment prolonged time to loss of righting reflex. These effects of PDE10A inhibition on neurological function were reflected in a significant amelioration in brain pathology, including reduction in striatal and cortical cell loss, the formation of striatal neuronal intranuclear inclusions, and the degree of microglial activation that occurs in response to the mutant huntingtin-induced brain damage. Striatal and cortical levels of phosphorylated CREB and BDNF were significantly elevated. Conclusions/Significance: Our findings provide experimental support for targeting the cAMP and CREB signaling pathways and more broadly transcriptional dysregulation as a therapeutic approach to Huntington's disease. It is noteworthy that PDE10A inhibition in the R6/2 mice reduces striatal pathology, consistent with the localization of the enzyme in medium spiny neurons, and also cortical pathology and the formation of neuronal nuclear inclusions. These latter findings suggest that striatal pathology may be a primary driver of these secondary pathological events. More significantly, our studies point directly to an accessible new therapeutic approach to slow Huntington's disease progression, namely, PDE10A inhibition. There is considerable activity throughout the pharmaceutical industry to develop PDE10A inhibitors for the treatment of basal ganglia disorders. The present results strongly support the investigation of PDE10A inhibitors as a much needed new treatment approach to Huntington's disease. © 2010 Giampà et al.


Jones K.A.,Cyanaptic LLC | Menniti F.S.,Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Sivarao D.V.,Bristol Myers Squibb
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2015

Neuroscience has made tremendous progress delineating the cellular and molecular processes important for understanding neuronal development and behavior, but this knowledge has been slow to translate to new treatments for psychiatric illness. To accelerate this transfer of knowledge to the human condition requires the wide-scale adoption of biomarkers that can bridge preclinical and clinical discoveries, and serve as surrogate measures of efficacy before commencing expensive phase III studies. Several biomarker methodologies, including imaging, electroencephalography (EEG), and blood transcriptomics/proteomics, are now showing promise. From an industry perspective, we highlight the utility of quantitative EEG as one example of a translatable biomarker applicable to psychiatric drug development and discuss recent insights into glutamate system dysfunction in schizophrenia and depression gained through translational studies of the drug ketamine. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.


Patent
Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Date: 2014-09-26

Compounds that selectively negatively modulate NMDA receptors containing an NR2A subunit, pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compounds, and methods of treating a disease using the compounds are disclosed.


Patent
Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Date: 2014-09-26

Compounds that selectively negatively modulate NMDA receptors containing an NR1/NR2B subunit, pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compounds, and methods of treating a disease using the compounds are disclosed.


Patent
Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Luc Therapeutics | Date: 2014-09-26

Compounds that selectively negatively modulate NMDA receptors containing an NR2A subunit, pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compounds, and methods of treating a disease using the compounds are disclosed.


Loading Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. collaborators
Loading Mnemosyne Pharmaceuticals Inc. collaborators