Ghāziābād, India
Ghāziābād, India

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Gupta N.J.,University of Delhi | Gupta N.J.,MMH College | Kumar V.,University of Delhi | Panda S.,La Jolla Salk Institute | Panda S.,University of California at San Diego
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

The daily rhythm of feeding-fasting and meal-timing are emerging as important determinants of health. Circadian rhythm research in animal models and retrospective analyses of human nutrition data have shown that reduced length of overnight fasting or increased late night eating increases risk for metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes. However, the daily rhythm in eating pattern in humans is rarely measured. Traditional methods to collect nutrition information through food diary and food log pay little attention to the timing of eating which may also change from day to day. We adopted a novel cell-phone based approach to longitudinally record all events of food and beverage intake in adults. In a feasibility study daily food-eating patterns of 93 healthy individuals were recorded for 21 days using camera phones. Analysis of the daily eating patterns of these individuals indicates deviation from conventional assumption that people eat three meals-a-day within a 12 h interval. We found that eating events are widespread throughout the day, with <30% of calories consumed before noon and >30% consumed in evening and late night hours. There was little difference in eating pattern between weekdays and weekends. In this cohort more than 50% of people spread their caloric intake events over 15 h or longer. One decile of the cohort who were spouses of shift-workers or had flexible work schedule spread their caloric intake over 20 h. Although the nutrition quality and diversity of food consumed is different between South- East Asian and Western countries, such overall disruption of daily eating-fasting rhythm is similar. Therefore, in view of hypothesis that disrupted daily eating pattern may contribute to the global increase in metabolic diseases and modification of daily eating pattern is a potential modifiable behavior to contain these diseases, monitoring eating pattern is an important aspect of lifestyle. © 2017 Gupta et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Verma S.C.,Institutional Area | Jain C.L.,Mmh College | Padhi M.M.,Institutional Area
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2011

Economical and simple microwave-assisted extraction of Cynodon dactylon whole plant and simultaneously quantitative analysis of four phenolics viz., 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (1), vanillic acid (2), 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde (3) and ferulic acid (4) have been carried out by diode array detection with RP-HPLC. Ethanol as a solvent and microwave's irradiation time 120 s were found to be most favourable for maximum extraction of desired compounds 1-4. The samples were separated on Eclipse XDB-C18 column with gradient elution of acetonitrile and water: trifluoroacetic acid (99.5:0.05, v/v, pH 2.9) at a flow rate 1.0 mL/min and detected at 280 nm. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999). The LOD and LOQ were found in the range 0.12-0.27 and 0.40-0.89 μg/mL, respectively. Good recoveries were achieved (92.56-104.89 %) within range. Compound 1 was found in maximum quantity (= 10.312 |μg/mL) while compound 4 was found in least quantity (3.621 μg/mL). This method will be useful for quality control and assessment of C. dactylon containing product.


Jain Gupta N.,MMH College | Kumar V.,University of Delhi
Animal Biology | Year: 2013

Day length regulates the development of seasonal phenotypes linked with both the spring migration (e.g., premigratory body fattening and intense nighttime restlessness, called Zugunruhe, in captive birds) and reproduction (e.g., gonadal growth and maturation). The apparent overlap in these photoinduced seasonal phenotypes could be taken to suggest that they are causally linked. The present study investigates this, using the night-migratory blackheaded bunting (Emberiza melanocephala). We continuously monitored activity of male buntings exposed for 19 weeks to short (8 h light : 16 h darkness; 8L : 16D) and long (16L : 8D) photoperiods. Long, but not short, days induced the spring migratory phenotype. Another experiment investigated the role of testes in spring migration by comparing the development of Zugunruhe between intact and castrated buntings held on natural day lengths, at Meerut (India, 29°01 N, 77°45 E) during the period from March to October, thus covering the times of both the spring and autumn migrations. Testes were not involved in induction of the migratory phenotype but probably influenced the end of the migratory season, since castrates delayed the termination of the Zugunruhe. © 2013 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.


Kumari S.,Mmh College | Singh A.K.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Verma A.K.,Mmh College | Yaduvanshi N.P.S.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2014

An attempt has been made in this study to evaluate the groundwater quality in two industrial blocks of Ghaziabad district. Groundwater samples were collected from shallow wells, deep wells and hand pumps of two heavily industrialized blocks, namely Bulandshahar road industrial area and Meerut road industrial area in Ghaziabad district for assessing their suitability for various uses. Samples were collected from 30 sites in each block before and after monsoon. They were analyzed for a total of 23 elements, namely, Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Se, U, V, and Zn. In addition to these elements, some other parameters were also studied viz: color, odor, turbidity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids and total suspended solid. The water quality index was also calculated based on some of the parameters estimated. Out of the 23 elements, the mean values of 12 elements, namely, Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, and U, were higher than the prescribed standard limits. The concentrations (in milligram per liter) of highly toxic metals viz., Al, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, and U, ranged from 1.33-6.30, 0.04-0.54, 0.005-0.013, 4.51-7.09, 0.14-0.27, 0.13-0.32, 0.16-2.11, and 0.10-1.21, respectively, in all groundwater samples, while the permissible limits of these elements as per WHO/BIS standards for drinking are 0.2, 0.01, 0.003, 0.05, 0.07, 0.01, 0.04, and 0.03 mg L-1, respectively. The EC, pH, and COD in all samples varied from 0.74-4.21, 6.05-7.72, and 4.5-20.0 while their permissible limits are 0.7 dS m-1, 6.5-8.5, and 10 mg L-1, respectively. On the basis of the above-mentioned parameters, the water quality index of all groundwater samples ranged from 101 to 491, and 871 to 2904 with mean value of 265 and 1,174 based on two criteria, i.e., physico-chemical and metal contaminations, respectively while the prescribed safe limit for drinking is below 50. The results revealed that the groundwater in the two blocks is unfit for drinking as per WHO/BIS guidelines. The presence of elements like As, Se, and U in toxic amounts is a matter of serious concern. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Pandey M.K.,Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission | Singh G.N.,Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission | Sharma R.K.,Pharmacopoeia Laboratory of Indian Medicine | Lata S.,Mmh College
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2011

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk is small branched annual herbaceous plant with a long history of traditional medicines uses in many countries especially in tropical and subtropical regions. The herb has been known for its curative properties and has been utilized as antimytotoxic, analgesic, antibacterial, antihepatotoxic, antihaemorrhagic, antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, immunomodulatory properties and it is considered as a good rejuvenator too. A wide range of chemical compounds including coumestans, alkaloids, thiopenes, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, triterpenes and their glycosides have been isolated from this species. Extracts and metabolites from this plant have been known to possess pharmacological properties. The present study confirmed the antibacterial potential of aerial parts extracts of Eclipta alba in solvents like acetone, ethanol, methanol, aqueous and hexane against selected gram positive and gram negative bacterial species. The antibacterial studies were done by agar well diffusion methods. The MIC and MBC methods were also used. Hexane extract of showed Eclipta alba high antibacterial activity against S.aureus, B.cereus, E.coli, S.typhi, K.pneumoniae,S.pyogenes and P.aeruginosa. whereas acetone, ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts showed intermediate activity against S.aureus, B.cereus, E.coli, S.typhi, K.pneumoniae, P.aeruginosa, P.mirabilis and S.pyogenes. The inhibitory activities of all the extracts reported were compared with standard antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin 25 μg/ml). An MIC of 90.0μg/ml shown by E.coli and S.aureus was considered to be the best (below 100μg/ml), an MIC of 125.0μg/ml shown by E.coli, K.pneumoni, P.mirabilis and S.typhi was considered to be better (100-500μg/ml) as such by the action of acetone, ethanol, methanol and hexane extracts on test bacterial spp respectively MIC between (500-1000μg/ml) was considered to be good. The aqueous extracts of Eclipta alba showed good activity against S.pyogenes, B.cereus, E.coli and P.aeruginosa. If the dilution was above 1000μg/ml the extract were considered inactive against S.aureus, K.pneumoniae, P.mirabilis and S.typhi. MBC results were similar to MIC results but in the case of MBC the confirmation was made by absence of growth in culture plates after 24 hrs of incubation at 37°C. A potent antibacterial and hepatoprotective drug could probably be formulated from the plant extract of Eclipta alba to combat the effects of bacterial and hepatotoxic infections.


Nangia S.,Batra Hospital | Chufal K.S.,Batra Hospital | Tyagi A.,Batra Hospital | Tyagi A.,MMH College | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2010

Purpose: We have been using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for selective neck irradiation. This article presents an analysis of patterns of failure and their dosimetric correlation. Methods and Materials: Between October 2003 and January 2008, 83 patients with head-and-neck cancer were treated with IMRT. Nodal levels were contoured as per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) consensus guidelines. Results: There were 32 relapses with 23 local relapses (21 local relapses alone and 2 local and regional relapses, simultaneously), 9 regional relapses (including 2 simultaneous local and regional relapses), and 5 distant relapses, of which 2 patients had local relapses. At 2 and 3 years, the locoregional relapse-free survival rates were was 68.3% and 60.8%, respectively, while the overall survival rates were 84.1% and 81.7%, respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed significant differences in locoregional relapse-free survival rates for total treatment times of <53 days vs. >53 days, a volume of CTV1PTV (i.e., the volume prescribed 70 Gy) <177 cc vs. >177 cc, a V100 for CTV1PTV of <91% vs. >91%, and a minimum dose to CTV1PTV of <54 Gy vs. >54 Gy. There were no failures in the elective nodal volume, substantiating both the nodal selection criteria and the RTOG consensus guidelines for delineation of neck node levels. Conclusions: IMRT for head-neck cancer is feasible, using elective nodal selection criteria along with RTOG consensus guidelines for the radiological boundaries of levels of neck nodes. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Pal S.,Mmh College | Anshu,Mmh College | Singh C.,Mmh College
Physica Scripta T | Year: 2011

We have extended and generalized the modified Jain-Khare (JK) semiempirical formalism to the evaluation of partial differential and partial integral ionization cross sections for fullerenes. The differential cross sections corresponding to the production of singly, doubly and triply charged cations in the electron impact ionization of C60 were evaluated at incident electron energies of 100 and 200 eV. The partial integral ionization cross sections calculated in the energy range varying from ionization thresholds to 1000 eV revealed satisfactory agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data. The ionization rate coefficients corresponding to the various cations have also been evaluated using the presently calculated ionization cross sections and Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distributions. © 2011 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.


Chaudhary P.,MMH College
Indian Journal of Physics | Year: 2011

The classical electrodynamics for dyons in six-dimensional space-time has been studied in terms of generalized potentials and fields. Choosing a suitable Lagrangian in six-space, it has been shown that the magnetically charged particles necessarily require temporal degrees of freedom and to develop a consistent covariant theory for all relativistic phenomena the study of dyon in six-space appears as a natural choice. Extending generalized potentials and fields to account for additional temporal degrees of freedom the field equations have been derived in six-space. The dynamics of massive spin-1 dyon has been discussed under space-time dependent structural mappings and it has been shown that the force experienced by dyon considerably depends on the selection of trajectory of space-time. © 2011 IACS.


Gupta N.J.,MMH College | Das S.,MMH College
Biological Rhythm Research | Year: 2016

We investigated whether a climatic change in temperature affected daily food intake in migrating male redheaded buntings. Groups of adult male birds (n = 18) were photoinduced into migratory phenotype under increasing spring daylengths (NDL); as the birds began to exhibit night restlessness, Zugunruhe, these were allocated into groups, either with ambient (NDL, variable daily temperature: maximum-29-44 °C and minimum-16-33 °C; for food intake (six birds) and activity recording, six birds) until 2 weeks after they concluded migration or with constant temperature (NDT, 22 ± 1 °C; for food intake (six birds)) conditions. As day length increased March onwards, daily food intake increased (hyperphagia) in NDL and NDT groups. However, hyperphagia was slower in NDT birds as compared to NDL birds, suggesting that altered ambient temperature affects daily food intake in migrating buntings. Another group of 12 birds were held under constant daylengths (12L:12D; EDT and constant temperature 22 ± 1 °C). Although the onset of Zugunruhe was delayed under EDT, the day of onset of Zugunruhe was taken as day 0. Daily food intake and body weight before and during migration of EDT birds were compared with that of NDT and NDL groups. Daily food intake and body weight increased in all migrating birds, but hyperphagia continued post-migration in NDT birds. The study suggests that constantly suboptimal temperature despite increasing daylength, NDT, appeared to affect feeding and body weight of migratory buntings as evident from continued hyperphagia and body weight gain, even after concluding migrating activity. © 2015 Taylor and Francis.


Das S.,MMH College | Gupta N.J.,MMH College
Biological Rhythm Research | Year: 2016

Seasonal changes in daily food consumption have a direct bearing with energy requirement of bird that is in turn associated with life history stage of birds. We compared seasonal changes in daily food intake in adult male migratory redheaded bunting (Emberiza bruniceps) that over winters in Indian subcontinent with those in non-migratory blackheaded munia to reiterate the same. We also compared daily food eating pattern (DFEP) in wintering blackheaded and redheaded buntings, closely related Emberizidae finches to establish circadian nature of feeding behavior and how it varied at species level. The birds were held under short days (8L:16D; 8 h of light and 16 h of darkness) and two hourly food consumption was measured to profile their DFEP. Further, we extended the study to establish how the circadian pattern of food consumption varied depending on birds’ physiological state and effect of photoperiod in adult male redheaded buntings. Redheaded buntings DFEP and locomotor activity were compared in pre-migratory months of February (spring) and September (autumn). The results suggest that September (photorefractory) birds exhibit clear bimodality in their feeding behavior as compared to (photosensitive) birds in February. Another experiment compared bird’s DFEP held under short (8L:16D) and long (16L:8D) days for 5 weeks and suggested that under long days, prolonged hours of photophase render adaptive advantage to birds for positive energy budgeting. The present study clearly establishes the circadian nature of feeding behavior and that it modulates over seasons. The bimodal i.e. morning and evening peaks of food consumption suggest morning–evening food entrainable oscillators, however this needs to be investigated with mechanistic approach in future studies. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

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