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Kumar D.,Center for Development of Advanced Computing of India | Aseri T.C.,PEC University of Technology | Patel R.B.,Mm University
International Journal of Computers, Communications and Control | Year: 2011

In recent years, energy efficiency and data gathering is a major concern in many applications of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). One of the important issues inWSNs is how to save the energy consumption for prolonging the network lifetime. For this purpose, many novel innovative techniques are required to improve the energy efficiency and lifetime of the network. In this paper, we propose a novel Energy Efficient Clustering and Data Aggregation (EECDA) protocol for the heterogeneous WSNs which combines the ideas of energy efficient cluster based routing and data aggregation to achieve a better performance in terms of lifetime and stability. EECDA protocol includes a novel cluster head election technique and a path would be selected with maximum sum of energy residues for data transmission instead of the path with minimum energy consumption. Simulation results show that EECDA balances the energy consumption and prolongs the network lifetime by a factor of 51%, 35% and 10% when compared with Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), Energy Efficient Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm (EEHCA) and Effective Data Gathering Algorithm (EDGA), respectively. © 2006-2011 by CCC Publications.

Nair A.B.,Mm University | Kiran Vaka S.R.,University of Mississippi | Murthy S.N.,University of Mississippi
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy | Year: 2011

Trans-nail permeability is limited due to the innate nature of the nail plate and the recent investigations indicated the potential of iontophoresis in enhancing the transungual drug delivery in normal nails. However, the onychomycotic nails differ from the normal nails with respect to the anatomical and biological features. The current study investigated the effect of iontophoresis (0.5mA/cm 2 for 1h) on the transungual delivery of terbinafine in onychomycotic finger and toe nails. The presence of fungi in the onychomycotic nails was diagnosed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopy. Passive and iontophoretic delivery of terbinafine across the infected nail was studied in Franz diffusion cell. Further, the release profile of terbinafine from the drug-loaded nails was investigated by agar diffusion method. KOH microscopy confirmed the presence of fungi in all the nails used. The amount of drug permeated across the nail plate was enhanced significantly during iontophoresis over passive delivery, that is, by 21-fold in case of finger and 37-fold in case of toe nails. Further, the total drug load in the onychomycotic nail was enhanced by ~12-fold (in both finger and toe nails) due to iontophoresis. Release of terbinafine from the iontophoresis-loaded nails into agar plates exhibited two phases, a rapid phase followed by a steady release, which extended >2 months. This study concluded that the drug delivery in onychomycotic nails did not differ significantly when compared with normal nails, although the extent of drug permeation and drug load differs between finger and toe nails. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Singh C.,Punjabi University | Walia E.,Mm University
Pattern Recognition | Year: 2010

Zernike moments (ZMs) are used in many image processing applications due to their superior performance over other moments. However, they suffer from high computation cost and numerical instability at high order of moments. In the past many recursive methods have been developed to improve their speed performance and considerable success has been achieved. The analysis of numerical stability has also gained momentum as it affects the accuracy of moments and their invariance property. There are three recursive methods which are normally used in ZMs calculation-Prata's, Kintner's and q-recursive methods. The earlier studies have found the q-recursive method outperforming the two other methods. In this paper, we modify Prata's method and present a recursive relation which is proved to be faster than the q-recursive method. Numerical instability is observed at high orders of moments with the q-recursive method suffering from the underflow problem while the modified Prata's method suffering from finite precision error. The modified Kintner's method is the least susceptible to these errors. Keeping in view the better numerical stability, we further make the modified Kintner's method marginally faster than the q-recursive method. We recommend the modified Prata's method for low orders (≤90) and Kintner's fast method for high orders (>90) of ZMs. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kumar R.,Mm University | Dave M.,National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra
Wireless Personal Communications | Year: 2013

Data aggregation is used to combine correlated data items from different vehicles before redistributing to other vehicles in the vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET). The number of retransmissions and the communication overhead can be reduced considerably by using aggregation. It is a prerequisite for applications that require periodic dissemination of information into a large region so that, drivers can be informed well in advance and can take alternative route in case of traffic congestion. Dissemination of information to vehicles through broadcasting creates a broadcast storm problem in VANET. In this paper a novel framework is proposed for handling the local broadcast storm problem using probabilistic data aggregation which reduces the bandwidth consumption and hence improves the information dissemination. This system exploits the knowledge base and stores the decisions for aggregation and is based on a flexible and extensible set of criteria. These criteria's can be application specific and can enable a dynamic fragmentation of the road according to the various application requirements. The framework is evaluated for VANET based traffic information system through simulation for strictly limited bandwidth and local broadcast problem. The results demonstrate that completely structure-free probabilistic data aggregation reduces the bandwidth consumption by eliminating the local broadcast problem. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

Gupta V.K.,Mm University | Sharma S.K.,Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology
International Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

In this study, antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Ficus bengalensis Linn. (FBWE) root was investigated for its free radical scavenging activity by adopting various in vitro models. The extract was investigated for its antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity, hydrogen peroxide activity, determination of total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu's phenolic reagent. FBWE showed maximum scavenging of DPPH radical (96.07%) at 250 μg mL-1 concentration and hydrogen peroxide (69.23%) at 1000 μg mL-1 concentration. Reducing power was also dose dependent and total phenolic content evaluated that 1 mg of FBWE contains 25.34 ug equivalent of gallic acid. The extract showed significant results when compared with the standard compounds. © 2010 Academic Journals Inc.

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