Chatterjee S.,MM University
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Year: 2017
Telomeres are repetitive ribonucleoprotein complexes present at ends of chromosomes. To synthesize this manuscript, a thorough literature search was done using PubMed, MEDLINE and Cochrane review for English-language literature and data available from the period of 2005-2016 were analyzed for manuscript writing. Telomeres help in maintaining the cellular health, inbuilt cellular mechanisms, metabolism and normal cell cycle. Telomerase is a specialized enzyme that possesses catalytic subunits - reverse transcriptase, Terc and dyskerin. Mutations affecting telomere or any component of telomerase enzyme result in disorders such as dyskeratosis congenita, aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and leukemias. Thus, it is important to understand the telomere biology so as to deal with normal physiologic processes such as apoptosis, aging and senescence and tumor development. © 2017 Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.
Wadhwa J.,Banasthali University |
Nair A.,King Faisal University |
Kumria R.,Mm University
Current Drug Delivery | Year: 2013
Mucilages, and in particular plant mucilages, have gained more attention over the last few decades due to their reputable medicinal properties. Some publications have appeared in reputable Scientific Journals that have made appreciable contributions to the discovery of the functions and utilizations of such naturally occurring products. Therapeutic value of mucilages has been extended to wound healing, diabetes, immunostimulation, cancer, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, stomachic, and antioxidant properties. Based on their sustaining capacities as well as binding and gelling properties, mucilages have been proposed to be one of the most useful materials to modulate drug delivery. Chemical analysis reveals that generally these contain monosachrides along with a range of other organic and inorganic components. Although physiological properties of various plant mucialges have been described, it still remains uncertain as to which of the component(s) is responsible for these physiological properties. Further research needs to be done to unravel the myth surrounding the biological activities and the functional properties of them. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the applications of plant mucilages as therapeutic agent and pharmaceutical additives. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.
Nair A.B.,King Faisal University |
Kumria R.,MM University |
Harsha S.,King Faisal University |
Attimarad M.,King Faisal University |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2013
Extensive research on transmucosal drug delivery in the past few decades has resulted in the clinical application of several drug molecules through the buccal route. Interestingly, most of the new chemical moieties under clinical trials are being screened for their potential to deliver through the buccal cavity. In this context, buccal film offers several advantages including convenient dosing and better patient compliance. However, the greatest challenge is to develop a high quality buccal film which also necessitates constant evaluation and understanding the performance of the dosage form, the critical steps to achieve a successful product development. Despite the intense focus on buccal film based drug delivery system, there are no official standardized methods for its evaluation. Significant efforts have been made to demonstrate and improve the efficacy, potency and safety of buccal film using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assessments. Besides the physical properties of the film, several other parameters such as residence time, mucoadhesion, drug release, in vitro and in vivo buccal permeation profiles and absorption kinetics of the drug are examined while characterizing the prepared buccal films. However, various research groups have employed different methods and experimental conditions to evaluate the formulation, which has limited the comparison of data between the research groups. This review provides an overview about the various parameters that are considered and assessed as a part of formulation development to ensure quality product with desired characteristics. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Kaur A.,MM University |
Nain P.,MM University |
Nain J.,MM University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2012
Rheumatoid arthritis is chronic, progressive, disabling autoimmune disease characterized by systemic inflammation of joints, damaging cartilage and bone around the joints. It is a systemic disease which means that it can affect the whole body and internal organs such as lungs, heart and eyes. Although numbers of synthetic drugs are being used as standard treatment for rheumatoid arthritis but they have adverse effect that can compromise the therapeutic treatment. Unfortunately, there is still no effective known medicinal treatment that cures rheumatoid arthritis as the modern medicine can only treat the symptoms of this disease that means to relieve pain and inflammation of joints. It is possible to use the herbs and plants in various forms in order to relieve the pain and inflammation in the joints. There are so many medicinal plants that have shown anti rheumatoid arthritis properties. So the plants and plant product with significant advantages are used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The present review is focused on the medicinal plants having anti rheumatoid arthritis activity.
Kaur N.,Mm University |
Kishore L.,Mm University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2012
The antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of powder of roots of Phaseolus trilobus was evaluated. Methanolic extract was evaluated for its reducing power, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. High content of flavonoids in the roots may account for the antioxidant activity of the species. Study shows the potential of the methanolic extract of P. trilobus as a natural antioxidant.
Nain P.,Mm University |
Saini V.,Mm University |
Sharma S.,A And G Pharmaceutical, Inc. |
Nain J.,Mm University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2012
Ethnopharmacological relevance: In traditional Indian medicine, all parts of Emblica officinalis Gaertn plant including the fruit, seed, leaves, root, bark and flowers are used in various herbal preparations for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, chronic diarrhea, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic. Aim of the study: To evaluate the hypoglycemic and antioxidants effects of the hydro-methanolic (20:80) extract of leaves of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (HMELEO) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Material and methods: The hypoglycemic effect was measured by blood glucose and plasma insulin level. The oxidative stress was measured in liver and kidney by level of antioxidant markers i.e. lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT), and the biochemical parameters, i.e. blood serum levels of creatinine, urea, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminases (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were the salient features observed in diabetic control and treated rats. Results: Oral administration of the HMELEO at a concentration of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg b.w. daily for 45 days showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in fasting blood glucose and increase insulin level as compared with the diabetic rats. Also it significantly (P<0.05) reduced all biochemical parameters (serum creatinine, serum urea, SGOT, SGPT and lipid profile). The treatment also resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and decrease LPO level in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results clearly suggest that the hydro methanolic extract of leaves of Emblica officials Gaertn. treated group may effectively normalize the impaired antioxidant status in streptozotocin induced diabetes at dose dependent manner than the glibenclamide-treated groups. The extract exerted rapid protective effects against lipid peroxidation by scavenging of free radicals and reducing the risk of diabetic complications. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved.
Singh C.,Punjabi University |
Walia E.,Mm University
Pattern Recognition | Year: 2010
Zernike moments (ZMs) are used in many image processing applications due to their superior performance over other moments. However, they suffer from high computation cost and numerical instability at high order of moments. In the past many recursive methods have been developed to improve their speed performance and considerable success has been achieved. The analysis of numerical stability has also gained momentum as it affects the accuracy of moments and their invariance property. There are three recursive methods which are normally used in ZMs calculation-Prata's, Kintner's and q-recursive methods. The earlier studies have found the q-recursive method outperforming the two other methods. In this paper, we modify Prata's method and present a recursive relation which is proved to be faster than the q-recursive method. Numerical instability is observed at high orders of moments with the q-recursive method suffering from the underflow problem while the modified Prata's method suffering from finite precision error. The modified Kintner's method is the least susceptible to these errors. Keeping in view the better numerical stability, we further make the modified Kintner's method marginally faster than the q-recursive method. We recommend the modified Prata's method for low orders (≤90) and Kintner's fast method for high orders (>90) of ZMs. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tuli H.S.,Mm University |
Sharma A.K.,Mm University |
Sandhu S.S.,Rd University |
Life Sciences | Year: 2013
Cytotoxic nucleoside analogues were the first chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment. Cordycepin, an active ingredient of the insect fungus Cordyceps militaris, is a category of compounds that exhibit significant therapeutic potential. Cordycepin has many intracellular targets, including nucleic acid (DNA/RNA), apoptosis and cell cycle, etc. Investigations of the mechanism of anti-cancer drugs have yielded important information for the design of novel drug targets in order to enhance anti-tumor activity with less toxicity to patients. This extensive review covers various molecular aspects of cordycepin interactions with its recognized cellular targets and proposes the development of novel therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Sharma A.,MM University
Geo-Spatial Information Science | Year: 2010
The present paper offers an innovative method to monitor the change in soil erosion potential by integrating terrain and vegetation indices derived from remote sensing data. Three terrain indices namely, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI) and slope length factor (LS), were derived from the digital elevation model. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI) was derived for the year 1988 and 2004 using remote sensing images. K-mean clustering was performed on staked indices to categorize the study area into four soil erosion potential classes. The validation of derived erosion potential map using USLE model showed a good agreement. Results indicated that there was a significant change in the erosion potential of the watershed and a gradual shifting of lower erosion potential class to next higher erosion potential class over the study period. © 2010 Wuhan University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Chatterjee S.,Mm University
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine | Year: 2011
Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate age by comparing sclerotic dentin thickness around coronal pulp chamber in carious and attrited teeth. Methodology: Inclusion criteria for teeth selection was eruption age around six to seven years (incisors and first molars). 100 teeth (50 carious + 50 attrited) were ground up to their pulp chamber, observed and photographed under an Olympus stereomicroscope. Image J 1.38 NIH software was employed to analyze dentinal thickness. Statistical analysis: Regression formula was employed for evaluating age and compared with clinical age obtained at time of extraction. Results: No matching values were found between calculated age and actual clinical age. Conclusion: Sclerotic dentin thickness values cannot be used as an indicator for the purpose of age estimation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.