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Falini B.,University of Perugia | Martelli M.P.,University of Perugia | Bolli N.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Sportoletti P.,University of Perugia | And 3 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

After the discovery of NPM1-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 2005 and its subsequent inclusion as a provisional entity in the 2008 World Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms, several controversial issues remained to be clarified. It was unclear whether the NPM1 mutation was a primary genetic lesion and whether additional chromosomal aberrations and multilineage dysplasia had any impact on the biologic and prognostic features of NPM1-mutated AML. Moreover, it was uncertain how to classify AML patients who were double-mutated for NPM1 and CEBPA. Recent studies have shown that: (1) the NPM1 mutant perturbs hemopoiesis in experimental models; (2) leukemic stem cells from NPM1-mutated AML patients carry the mutation; and (3) the NPM1 mutation is usually mutually exclusive of biallelic CEPBA mutations. Moreover, the biologic and clinical features of NPM1-mutatedAMLdo not seem to be significantly influenced by concomitant chromosomal aberrations or multilineage dysplasia. Altogether, these pieces of evidence point to NPM1-mutated AML as a founder genetic event that defines a distinct leukemia entity accounting for approximately one-third of all AML. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.

Haferlach C.,MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory
Blood | Year: 2015

In this issue of Blood, Gröschel et al and Lavallée et al report on a subset of myeloid malignancies with inv(3)(q21q26)/t(3;3)(q21;q26).1,2 Both groups demonstrate concordantly that this subset exhibits a distinct gene expression profile, a high rate of mutations activating the RAS/receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways, and frequent mutations in genes coding for splice factors, epigenetic modifiers, and transcription factors. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

Schnittger S.,MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory
Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K | Year: 2011

The role of the nucleophosmin (NPM1) mutations in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is well analyzed, but the impact in secondary AML (s-AML) following myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or transformed myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) remains unclear. We investigated 350 patients-283 s-AML after MDS and 67 transformed MPNs-for NPM1mut. NPM1mut was detected in 43/350 patients (12.3%) at diagnosis of s-AML (transformed MDS: 37/283; 13.1%; transformed MPNs: 6/67; 9.0%). Cytogenetic alterations were present in 12/40 cases (30.0%) with available karyotypes. Additional molecular mutations were found in 23/43 NPM1mut s-AML after MDS (53.5%) and in transformed MPN in 18/37 (48.6%): FLT3-ITD: 14/37 (37.8%); FLT3-TKD: 3/28 (10.7%); NRASmut: 4/37 (10.8%), RUNX1mut: 1/16 (6.3%). In NPM1mut-transformed MPNs, five out of six cases showed 1-2 additional molecular mutations (2 × KITD816V, ETV6-PDGFRB, 2 × JAK2V617F, 2 × FLT3-ITD). Backtracking of nine of these cases by quantitative real time PCR showed the NPM1mut already at diagnosis of MDS/MPN, at variable levels and up to 14 months before diagnosis of AML, and at transformation often being preceded or accompanied by other genetic alterations. Thus, NPM1 mutations are involved in the transformation from MDS to AML or MPN to blast phase in single cases, which should be further confirmed in larger studies.

Rose D.,MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory
Leukemia | Year: 2016

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can be grouped into morphologically or genetically defined subtypes. Today, the AML phenotype–genotype associations, that is, FAB/WHO (French–American–British/World Health Organization) definitions and recurrent molecular mutations, are not fully understood. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of molecular mutations on the AML differentiation stage by molecular profiling of 4373 adult de novo AML patients in 7 cytomorphological subtypes. We investigated mutations in 20 genes, including myeloid transcription factors (CEBPA, RUNX1), tumor suppressors (TP53, WT1), DNA modifiers (DNMT3A, IDH1/2, TET2), chromatin modifiers (ASXL1, MLL), signal transduction genes (FLT3, KRAS, NRAS) and NPM1. The most frequently mutated genes per cytomorphological subtype were RUNX1 in M0 (43%), NPM1 in M1 (42%), DNMT3A in M2 (26%), NPM1 in M4 (57%), M5a (49%) and M5b (70%) and TP53 in M6 (36%). Although some gene mutations were frequent in several cytomorphological subtypes, a series of associations of co-occurring mutations with distinct phenotypes were identified for molecularly defined subcohorts. FLT3, NPM1 and WT1 mutations were associated with an immature phenotype in myeloblastic AML, whereas other combinations involving ASXL1, RUNX1, MLL-PTD, CEBPA or KRAS were more frequent in myeloblastic AML with maturation. Within the NPM1 mutated subcohort, ASXL1 mutations were significantly associated with a monoblastic differentiation and DNMT3A mutations with a monocytic phenotype.Leukemia advance online publication, 1 July 2016; doi:10.1038/leu.2016.163. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Schnittger S.,MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory | Bacher U.,University of Hamburg | Kern W.,MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory | Alpermann T.,MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2011

High FLT3-ITD/wildtype (wt) load in FLT3-ITD-mutated AML has been associated with adverse impact on outcome in several studies. To clarify whether FLT3-ITD load as expressed as FLT3-ITD/wt ratio is also relevant in patients with NPM1 mutated AML, we assessed the FLT3-ITD mutation status and FLT3-ITD/wt ratio by fragment analysis in 638 NPM1mut AML (339 females; 299 males; 17.8-88.0 years), and analyzed its prognostic relevance in 355 patients. FLT3-ITD of various length and load were detected in 243/638 cases (38.1%). Median EFS (19.3 vs 9.7 months, P<0.001) and median 2-year survival rate (72.0 vs 52.7%, P0.006) was better in FLT3wt (n212 with available follow-up data) than FLT3-ITD (n143). A higher FLT3-ITD/wt ratio as continuous variable was correlated with a shorter EFS (P0.028). When patients were separated into subgroups according to the FLT3-ITD mutation load, only a FLT3-ITD/wt ratio ≥0.5 conferred an independent adverse impact on EFS and OS, and retained its prognostic significance also in multivariate analysis (P=0.009 for EFS, P=0.008 for OS). In conclusion, for risk estimation in NPM1 mutated AML not only the FLT3-ITD status, but also the FLT3-ITD load has to be taken into account. These data might contribute to clinical decision making in AML. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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