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Van Haren K.,Stanford University | Bonkowsky J.L.,University of Utah | Bernard G.,McGill University | Murphy J.L.,Childrens National Medical Center | And 9 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Leukodystrophies are inherited disorders whose primary pathophysiology consists of abnormal deposition or progressive disruption of brain myelin. Leukodystrophy patients manifest many of the same symptoms and medical complications despite the wide spectrum of genetic origins. Although no definitive cures exist, all of these conditions are treatable. This report provides the first expert consensus on the recognition and treatment of medical and psychosocial complications associated with leukodystrophies. We include a discussion of serious and potentially preventable medical complications and propose several preventive care strategies. We also outline the need for future research to prioritize clinical needs and subsequently develop, validate, and optimize specific care strategies. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Spacil Z.,University of Washington | Kumar A.B.,University of Washington | Liao H.-C.,University of Washington | Auray-Blais C.,Universite de Sherbrooke | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency in arylsulfatase A activity, leading to accumulation of sulfatide substrates. Diagnostic and monitoring procedures include demonstration of reduced arylsulfatase A activity in peripheral blood leukocytes or detection of sulfatides in urine. However, the development of a screening test is challenging because of instability of the enzyme in dried blood spots (DBS), the widespread occurrence of pseudodeficiency alleles, and the lack of available urine samples from newborn screening programs. METHODS: We measured individual sulfatide profiles in DBS and dried urine spots (DUS) from MLD patients with LC-MS/MS to identify markers with the discriminatory power to differentiate affected individuals from controls. We also developed a method for converting all sulfatide molecular species into a single species, allowing quantification in positive-ion mode upon derivatization. RESULTS: In DBS from MLD patients, we found up to 23.2-fold and 5.1-fold differences in total sulfatide concentrations for early- and late-onset MLD, respectively, compared with controls and pseudodeficiencies. Corresponding DUS revealed up to 164-fold and 78-fold differences for early- and late-onset MLD patient samples compared with controls. The use of sulfatides converted to a single species simplified the analysis and increased detection sensitivity in positive-ion mode, providing a second option for sulfatide analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study of sulfatides in DBS and DUS suggests the feasibility of the mass spectrometry method for newborn screening of MLD and sets the stage for a larger-scale newborn screening pilot study. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

Barcenas M.,University of Washington | Suhr T.R.,MLD Foundation | Scott C.R.,University of Washington | Turecek F.,University of Washington | Gelb M.H.,University of Washington
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2014

Background: Treatments are being developed for metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), suggesting the need for eventual newborn screening. Previous studies have shown that sulfatide molecular species are increased in the urine of MLD patients compared to samples from non-MLD individuals, but there is no data using dried blood spots (DBS), the most common sample available for newborn screening laboratories. Methods: We used ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) to quantify sulfatides in DBS and dried urine spots from 14 MLD patients and 50 non-MLD individuals. Results: Several sulfatide molecular species were increased in dried urine samples from all MLD samples compared to non-MLD samples. Sulfatides, especially low molecular species, were increased in DBS from MLD patients, but the sulfatide levels were relatively low. There was good separation in sulfatide levels between MLD and non-MLD samples when dried urine spots were used, but not with DBS, because DBS from non-MLD individuals have measurable levels of sulfatides. Conclusion: Sulfatide accumulation studies in urine, but not in DBS, emerges as the method of choice if newborn screening is to be proposed for MLD. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Helman G.,Childrens National Health System | Van Haren K.,Stanford University | Bonkowsky J.L.,University of Utah | Bernard G.,McGill University | And 21 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous, often progressive group of disorders manifesting a wide range of symptoms and complications. Most of these disorders have historically had no etiologic or disease specific therapeutic approaches. Recently, a greater understanding of the pathologic mechanisms associated with leukodystrophies has allowed clinicians and researchers to prioritize treatment strategies and advance research in therapies for specific disorders, some of which are on the verge of pilot or Phase I/II clinical trials. This shifts the care of leukodystrophy patients from the management of the complex array of symptoms and sequelae alone to targeted therapeutics. The unmet needs of leukodystrophy patients still remain an overwhelming burden. While the overwhelming consensus is that these disorders collectively are symptomatically treatable, leukodystrophy patients are in need of advanced therapies and if possible, a cure. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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