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Farfan E.B.,Savannah River Nuclear Solutions | Labone T.R.,MJW Corporation | Staack G.C.,Savannah River Nuclear Solutions | Cheng Y.-S.,Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Health Physics | Year: 2012

A sample of tritiated lanthanum nickel aluminum alloy (LaNi4.25Al0.75 or LANA.75) similar to that used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities was analyzed to estimate the particle size distribution of this metal tritide powder and the rate at which this material dissolves in the human respiratory tract after it is inhaled. This information is used to calculate the committed effective dose received by a worker after inhaling the material. These doses, which were calculated using the same methodology given in the U.S. Department of Energy Tritium Handbook, are presented as inhalation intake-to-dose conversion factors (DCF). The DCF for this metal tritide was determined to be 9.4 × 10 Sv Bq, which is less than the DCF for tritiated water. Therefore, the radiation worker bioassay programs designed for tritiated water are adequate to monitor for intakes of this material. Copyright © 2012 Health Physics Society.

Goans R.E.,MJW Corporation | Goans R.E.,Radiation Emergency Assistance Center
Health Physics | Year: 2010

The Biodosimetry Assessment Tool (BAT) is a computer program developed by the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) as an aid to provide early diagnostic information (clinical signs and symptoms, physical dosimetry, etc.) to health care providers responsible for the initial management of radiation casualties after a major radiation incident. It is designed primarily to permit collection, integration, and archiving of data obtained from patients accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation. BAT also provides an early estimate of radiation dose using the timing of prodromal symptoms, clinical data, and various aspects of the time-dependent hematology profile. Collection of relevant data is facilitated by use of structured templates and user-friendly software. The BAT software is illustrated here using five historical cases from the U.S. Radiation Accident Registry maintained by the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) for the U.S. Department of Energy. Copyright © by the Health Physics Society.

Iddins C.J.,Radiation Emergency Assistance Center Training Site | Cohen S.R.,University of California at San Diego | Goans R.E.,Radiation Emergency Assistance Center Training Site | Goans R.E.,MJW Corporation | And 5 more authors.
Health Physics | Year: 2016

Local cutaneous injuries induced by ionizing radiation (IR) are difficult to treat. Many have reported local injection of adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF), often with additional therapies, as an effective treatment of IR-induced injury even after other local therapies have failed. The authors report a case of a locally recurrent, IR-induced wound that was treated with autologous, non-cultured SVF without other concurrent therapy. A nondestructive testing technician was exposed to 130 kVp x rays to his non-dominant right thumb on 5 October 2011. The wound healed 4 mo after initial conservative therapy with oral/topical α-tocopherol, oral pentoxifylline, naproxen sodium, low-dose oral steroids, topical steroids, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), oral antihistamines, and topical aloe vera. Remission lasted approximately 17 mo with one minor relapse in July 2012 after minimal trauma and subsequent healing. Aggressive wound breakdown during June 2013 required additional therapy with HBOT. An erythematous, annular papule developed over the following 12 mo (during which time the patient was not undergoing prescribed treatment). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) done more than 2 mo after exposure to IR revealed dose estimates of 14 ± 3 Gy and 19 ± 6 Gy from two centers using different EPR techniques. The patient underwent debridement of the 0.5 cm papular area, followed by SVF injection into and around the wound bed and throughout the thumb without complication. Eleven months post SVF injection, the patient has been essentially asymptomatic with an intact integument. These results raise the possibility of prolonged benefit from SVF therapy without the use of cytokines. Since there is currently no consensus on the use of isolated SVF therapy in chronic, local IR-induced injury, assessment of this approach in an appropriately powered, controlled trial in experimental animals with local radiation injury appears to be indicated. © 2016 Health Physics Society.

Goans R.E.,MJW Corporation | Iddins C.J.,Radiation Emergency Assistance Center Training Site | Christensen D.,Radiation Emergency Assistance Center Training Site | Wiley A.,Radiation Emergency Assistance Center Training Site | Dainiak N.,Yale University
Health Physics | Year: 2015

To evaluate the morphology of formed elements of human blood after exposure to ionizing radiation in vivo, archival smears of peripheral blood from eight individuals involved in the 1958 Y-12 criticality accident at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were examined manually by light microscopy. For each case, increased interlobar bridging was observed in nuclei of the myeloid cells, many of which were bilobed and morphologically similar to Pelger Huet (PH) cells. The high-dose group (n = 5, 2.98-4.61 Gy-Eq) exhibited 13.0 ± 0.85% PH cells (mean ± SEM) in the neutrophil population compared to 6.8 ± 1.6% in the low-dose group (n = 3, 0.29-0.86 Gy-Eq; p = 0.008). An age-and gender-matched control group (n = 8) exhibited 3.6 ± 0.9% PH cells. Results of a one-way ANOVA show that the high-dose group is statistically different from both the low-dose group and the control group (p = 0.002). However, the low-dose group is not statistically different from the control group (p = 0.122). The mean number of nuclear lobes in blood neutrophils was also enumerated as a function of time after exposure and was found to be diminished, consistent with incomplete nuclear segmentation that is characteristic of the Pelger Huet anomaly (PHA). In contrast to these changes in myeloid cells, the morphology of erythrocytes and platelets appeared to be normal. The authors conclude that ionizing radiation induces abnormal morphology of circulating neutrophils, which is similar to the pseudo-PHA that is acquired in disorders such as myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukemia, and leukemoid reactions. Potential molecular mechanisms by which radiation induces this morphological change are discussed. From this cohort, the biomarker appears to be present early post-accident (<9 h) and stable at least up to 16 y post-accident. Assessment of circulating pseudo-Pelger Huet cells is being investigated as a potential biodosimetric tool. © 2015 Health Physics Society.

Prasanna P.G.S.,Armed forces Radiobiology Research Institute | Prasanna P.G.S.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Blakely W.F.,Armed forces Radiobiology Research Institute | Bertho J.-M.,Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety | And 15 more authors.
Radiation Research | Year: 2010

Radiation exposures from accidents, nuclear detonations or terrorist incidents are unlikely to be homogeneous; however, current biodosimetric approaches are developed and validated primarily in whole-body irradiation models. A workshop was held at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute in May 2008 to draw attention to the need for partial-body biodosimetry, to discuss current knowledge, and to identify the gaps to be filled. A panel of international experts and the workshop attendees discussed the requirements and concepts for a path forward. This report addresses eight key areas identified by the Workshop Program Committee for future focus: (1) improved cytogenetics, (2) clinical signs and symptoms, (3) cutaneous bioindicators, (4) organ-specific biomarkers, (5) biophysical markers of dose, (6) integrated diagnostic approaches, (7) confounding factors, and (8) requirements for post-event medical follow-up. For each area, the status, advantages and limitations of existing approaches and suggestions for new directions are presented. © 2010 by Radiation Research Society. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

MJW Corporation Inc. | Date: 2011-08-17

A computer system, method, and apparatus for editing an interactive image video tour. The system may include a computer including an image editor for providing a visual program interface for editing an interactive image video tour; a database in communication with the computer containing data associated with a plurality of images comprising a portion of the interactive image video tour; and a viewer in communication with the computer for displaying the plurality of images. The method may include selecting a data file that includes image data and displaying an image associated therewith on a computer, the data file being stored in an image database containing a plurality of images for creating an interactive image video tour; and modifying one aspect of the image data contained in the selected data file. The apparatus may include a computer-readable medium containing instructions for controlling a computer system to perform a method for editing an interactive image video tour.

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