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Drozdovitch V.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Khrutchinsky A.,Institute for Nuclear Problems | Kukhta T.,National Academy of Sciences of Belarus | Luckyanov N.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2013

Results of all available meteorological and radiation measurements that were performed in Belarus during the first three months after the Chernobyl accident were collected from various sources and incorporated into a single database. Meteorological information such as precipitation, wind speed and direction, and temperature in localities were obtained from meteorological station facilities. Radiation measurements include gamma-exposure rate in air, daily fallout, concentration of different radionuclides in soil, grass, cow's milk and water as well as total beta-activity in cow's milk. Considerable efforts were made to evaluate the reliability of the measurements that were collected. The electronic database can be searched according to type of measurement, date, and location. The main purpose of the database is to provide reliable data that can be used in the reconstruction of thyroid doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. © 2012.

Skryabin A.M.,The Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology | Drozdovitch V.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Belsky Y.,The Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology | Leshcheva S.V.,The Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology | And 4 more authors.
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2010

This paper aims to determine the thyroid volumes in children and teenagers living in Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts, which are the areas of Belarus that were most affected by the Chernobyl accident. Results of thyroid volume measurements performed in 1991-1996 by the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation were used to evaluate the variation by age of the thyroid volumes for girls and boys aged from 5 to 16 y. Thyroid volumes for age groups without measurements were also estimated. For a given age and gender, the differences between children from Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts do not exceed 12 %, which is relatively small when the variability of individual values is considered. For children of a given age, the individual values show a variability characterised by geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.25-1.4. Values of thyroid mass that were derived from the measured thyroid volumes are being used within the framework of the on-going Belarusian-American cohort study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases after the Chernobyl accident to estimate with more accuracy the thyroid doses that were received by the cohort members. Published by Oxford University Press 2010.

Likhtarov I.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Kovgan L.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Masiuk S.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Talerko M.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Health Physics | Year: 2014

In collaboration with the Ukrainian Research Center for Radiation Medicine, the U.S. National Cancer Institute initiated a cohort study of children and adolescents exposed to Chornobyl fallout in Ukraine to better understand the long-term health effects of exposure to radioactive iodines. All 13,204 cohort members were subjected to at least one direct thyroid measurement between 30 April and 30 June 1986 and resided at the time of the accident in the northern parts of Kyiv, Zhytomyr, or Chernihiv Oblasts, which were the most contaminated territories of Ukraine as a result of radioactive fallout from the Chornobyl accident. Thyroid doses for the cohort members, which had been estimated following the first round of interviews, were re-evaluated following the second round of interviews. The revised thyroid doses range from 0.35 mGy to 42 Gy, with 95% of the doses between 1 mGy and 4.2 Gy, an arithmetic mean of 0.65 Gy, and a geometric mean of 0.19 Gy. These means are 70% of the previous estimates, mainly because of the use of countryspecific thyroid masses. Many of the individual thyroid dose estimates show substantial differences because of the use of an improved questionnaire for the second round of interviews. Limitations of the current set of thyroid dose estimates are discussed. For the epidemiologic study, the most notable improvement is a revised assessment of the uncertainties, as shared and unshared uncertainties in the parameter values were considered in the calculation of the 1,000 stochastic estimates of thyroid dose for each cohort member. This procedure makes it possible to perform a more realistic risk analysis. Copyright © 2014 Health Physics Society.

Chumak V.,National Research Center for Radiation Medicine | Drozdovitch V.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Kryuchkov V.,Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center | Bakhanova E.,National Research Center for Radiation Medicine | And 10 more authors.
Health Physics | Year: 2015

This paper describes dose reconstruction for a joint Ukrainian-American case-control study of leukemia that was conducted in a cohort of 110,645 male Ukrainian cleanup workers of the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) accident who were exposed to various radiation doses over the 1986-1990 time period. Individual bone-marrow doses due to external irradiation along with respective uncertainty distributions were calculated for 1,000 study subjects using the RADRUE method, which employed personal cleanup history data collected in the course of an interview with the subject himself if he was alive or with two proxies if he was deceased. The central estimates of the bone-marrow dose distributions range from 3.7 × 10-5 to 3,260 mGy, with an arithmetic mean of 92 mGy. The uncertainties in the individual stochastic dose estimates can be approximated by lognormal distributions; the average geometric standard deviation is 2.0. © 2015 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Drozdovitch V.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Minenko V.,Institute for Nuclear Problems | Khrouch V.,Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center | Leshcheva S.,Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology | And 10 more authors.
Radiation Research | Year: 2013

The U.S. National Cancer Institute, in collaboration with the Belarusian Ministry of Health, is conducting a study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in a cohort of about 12,000 persons who were exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. The study subjects were 18 years old or younger at the time of exposure and resided in Belarus in the most contaminated areas of the Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts, as well as in the city of Minsk. All cohort members had at least one direct thyroid measurement made in April-June 1986. Individual data on residential history, consumption of milk, milk products and leafy vegetables as well as administration of stable iodine were collected for all cohort members by means of personal interviews conducted between 1996 and 2007. Based on the estimated 131I activities in the thyroids, which were derived from the direct thyroid measurements, and on the responses to the questionnaires, individual thyroid doses from intakes of 131I were reconstructed for all cohort members. In addition, radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated for the following minor exposure pathways: (a) intake of short-lived 132I, 133I and 132Te by inhalation and ingestion; (b) external irradiation from radionuclides deposited on the ground; and (c) ingestion intake of 134Cs and 137Cs. Intake of 131I was the major pathway for thyroid exposure; its mean contribution to the thyroid dose was 92%. The thyroid doses from 131I intakes varied from 0.5 mGy to almost 33 Gy; the mean was estimated to be 0.58 Gy, while the median was 0.23 Gy. The reconstructed doses are being used to evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in the cohort. © 2013 by Radiation Research Society. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

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