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Sharpe B.R.,The Intl. Council on Clean Transportation | Clark N.,West Virginia University | Lowell D.,MJ Bradley and Associates
SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles | Year: 2014

This paper reviews fuel-saving technologies for commercial trailers, provides an overview of the trailer market in the U.S., and explores options for policy measures at the federal level that can promote the development and deployment of trailers with improved efficiency. For trailer aerodynamics, there are many technologies that exist and are in development to target each of the three primary areas where drag occurs: 1) the tractor-trailer gap, 2) the side and underbody of the trailer, and 3) the rear end of the trailer. In addition, there are tire technologies and weight reduction opportunities for trailers, which can lead to reduced rolling resistance and inertial loss. As with the commercial vehicle sector, the trailer market is diverse, and there are a variety of sizes and configurations that are employed to meet a wide range of freight demands. Despite this great diversity, box-type vans represent more than two-thirds of the sales market and likely constitute a large percentage of total trailer miles traveled. In terms of manufacturing and sales, the trailer market is fairly consolidated, with the largest five companies accounting for nearly two-thirds of total sales. The van trailer marker is even more consolidated, with the top five companies making up more than 90 percent of total sales. As policymakers in the United States and across North America weigh options for trailer policy measures, the authors recommend integration of trailers into the Phase 2 U.S. heavy-duty vehicle regulatory program, with emphasis on box trailers but inclusion of other types as well. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

Sharpe B.,International Council on Clean Transportation. | Lowell D.,MJ Bradley and Associates
SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles | Year: 2012

Advanced technology heavy-duty vehicles such as hybrids present unique regulatory challenges. Hybrids employ an additional energy source in conjunction with an internal combustion engine for motive power, and the interactions between the engine and the hybrid components affect criteria pollutant emissions and fuel consumption. Often, an engine installed in a hybrid vehicle will operate very differently from the same engine installed in a conventional vehicle driven over the same route. One of the difficulties in integrating vehicles such as hybrids into regulatory programs is developing the proper certification test procedures for criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions so that these advanced technologies and vehicles are evaluated fairly and consistently as compared to their conventional counterparts. This paper seeks to inform policy makers of the alternatives for moving toward more holistic approaches to testing and certifying powertrain systems and complete vehicles. The first part of the paper describes and compares the options for testing the emissions and fuel efficiency performance of heavy-duty vehicles from a technical perspective. The paper then goes on to discuss some of the specific regulatory challenges posed by the fact there are a myriad of test method and test cycle options and combinations that could potentially be used in a certification program. Finally, the paper concludes with an examination of the opportunities and challenges of developing a "world harmonized" certification procedure for heavy-duty hybrid and advanced technology vehicles. © 2012 SAE International.

Bedick C.R.,West Virginia University | Clark N.N.,West Virginia University | Johnson D.R.,West Virginia University | Balon Jr. T.H.,Mj Bradley and Associates | Moynihan P.J.,West Virginia University
Proceedings of the Institute of Marine Engineering, Science and Technology Part A: Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology | Year: 2011

A stand-alone retrofit urea-SCR after-treatment system has been developed employing a pre-SCR NOx sensor; exhaust flow measurement, wire mesh mixer, clean-up catalyst, open-loop feed-forward control and stoichiometric NOx reduction logic. Demonstration of the urea-SCR system on a 1991 Detroit Diesel Corporation 12L engine in a West Virginia University (WVU) transient test cell achieved a 50% weighted NOx reduction and zero ammonia slip over the ICOMIA E5 marine cycle.The cost-effectiveness of the urea-SCR system was determined, including a $50 000 capital cost and $2705/t NOx reduced annually, which is consistent with Carl Moyer program estimates.

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