Singh A.,ICAR RC NEH Region |
Singh B.K.,Mizoram Center |
Brajendra,Directorate of Rice Research |
Nath A.,ICAR RC NEH Region |
Deka B.C.,ICAR RC NEH Region
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2010
Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is a rich source of minerals, vitamins, and anti-oxidants, and has a unique flavour and aroma. However, there is little information on the genetic variability and inheritance of mineral elements in strawberry.This is important as it can influence the selection of better genotypes and suitable breeding approaches for improvements in the nutritional quality of fruit.The objectives of the present study were, therefore, to estimate the variability, inheritance, and inter-relationships of mineral elements, to identify mineral-rich and productive genotypes, and to suggest suitable breeding approaches. A significant genotypic mean square for all the minerals studied indicated sufficient variation among genotypes. Our results also indicated that the effect of genotype on the mineral content of fruit was stronger than that of environment. Six genotypes, namely 'Ofra', 'Sweet Charlie', 'Elista', 'Festival', 'Camarosa', and 'Douglas' were found to have higher mineral contents as well as better fruit yields, and therefore could be useful in further breeding programmes. N, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu contents, together with fruit yield, could be improved by selection and hybridisation as these traits showed high heritability (> 80%) and high genetic advance as a percentage of the mean (> 40%), while recurrent selection was suitable for increasing P contents, which showed moderate heritability (> 79.81%) and low genetic advance as a percentage of the mean (> 33.86%). Moreover, Mg and N contents could be used as reliable tools with which to identify the most productive and mineral-rich genotypes, as indicated by correlation and path analysis. Studies on such genetic estimates will increase our understanding of the inheritance of mineral contents and affect the design of crop improvement strategies.
Singh B.,Mizoram Center |
Pathak K.,Mizoram Center |
Verma A.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region |
Verma V.,Mizoram Center |
Deka B.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region
Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin | Year: 2011
Integration of vermicompost and organic mulch as elements of vegetable production system sustain soil fertility and crop productivity. A field experiment was conducted with the objective to investigate the effects of vermicompost, NPK fertilizer and organic mulch on crop growth, nodulation and pod yield of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with an ultimate aim of optimizing water and nutrient requirement in mild-tropical climate during dry season. The shoot growth traits, namely shoot length, number of primary branches, shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight were increased by 28-63% through application of N P2O5 K2O 8:13:10 kg•ha-1 + vermicompost 3.75 t•ha-1 and by 5-50% in organic mulching treatments. Application of vermicompost reduced nodule fresh weight and nodule dry weight by 44.9 and 44.5%, respectively. Likewise, corresponding nodule number, nodule fresh weight and nodule dry weight were reduced by 8.6, 11.1 and 14.1% with organic mulching. Poor nodulations might be due to reduced oxygenation of the soils under vermicompost and organic mulch which is ultimately impeding the nitrogenase activity and biological nitrogen fixation. Mulching of French bean with dried grasses and crop residues are also led to higher single pod weight, pod length, pod weight/plant and pod yield by 10.9, 12.8, 20.1 and 20.2%, respectively. Present study shows that application of N P2O5 K2O fertilizer 8-15:13-25:10-20 kg•ha-1, vermicompost 2.50-3.75 t•ha-1, 4 cm thick mulch of dried crop residues and 50% irrigation is the most suitable and sustainable strategy to improve plant growth, pod formation and pod yield of French bean, and soil health of mild-tropical climate during dry season.
Singh B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute |
Singh B.K.,Mizoram Center
International Journal of Vegetable Science | Year: 2011
The legume pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is an important rainfed crop in many areas of the world. Production can be reduced when high nitrogen is present and symbiotic activity is low. A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen rate on nodulation, nodule carbon, and nitrogen fixation in 40 pigeon pea genotypes. Nitrogen was applied as urea at 40 (N40) and 120 kg·ha-1 of N (N120). Shoot biomass, root nodulation, amounts of nitrogen and carbon fixed, nitrate reductase activity in roots and nodules, and nitrite content in roots and nodules were determined. Genotype, N rate, and the interaction affected results. The genotypes Pusa-2001 and Sel-90306-11-4 had the most nodule mass at N40. Nitrogen rate did not affect nodule nitrogen-fixing effectiveness. Genotype Pusa-2001 had higher biomass at N120. Genotype Sel-90306-11-4 had high phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase activity even at N120; which likely reduces host carbon dependence for nodule nitrogen function and improves carbon diversion to the reproductive sink. At N40 'Sel-24' formed large nodules with effective nitrogen fixation, which was impaired at N120. 'RG-01-69N' had lower numbers of nodules, nodule mass, and nitrogen fixation but more shoot biomass than the majority of the pigeon pea lines. N-response of pigeon pea was evident for nodule N2 fixation. Genotypes with improved nodule CO2 fixation may lead to increased yield and quality in monocropped and intercropped pigeon pea. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Singh A.,ICAR RC NEH Region |
Singh B.K.,Mizoram Center |
Deka B.C.,ICAR RC NEH Region |
Sanwal S.K.,ICAR RC NEH Region |
And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011
Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) is rich source of dietary antioxidants, minerals and nutrients. Dietary antioxidants have been known as beneficial for enhancing the fitness, preventing certain diseases and even mitigating the effects of ageing. The objectives of the present study were to determine variability and inheritance of antioxidants, to identify antioxidant rich and productive genotypes, and to suggest suitable breeding approaches. The genotypes, namely Ofra, Chandler, Festival and Camarosa showed higher concentrations of dietary antioxidants and therefore could be useful in future breeding. Results indicate that the effect of the genotypes on antioxidant contents is stronger than that of the environment. The high heritability (>80%) and low genetic advance as percentage of mean (<40%) for ascorbic acid and β-carotene contents could be improved by heterosis breeding. However, selection and hybridization would be effective tools to enhance the phenols and anthocyanin content, and yield potential as these traits showed high heritability (>80%) and high genetic advance as percentage of mean (>40%). Positive direct effect on fruit yield was highest for phenol content (0.609) which is also fairly close to its correlation coefficient (0.765) indicating that a direct selection based on phenol content would be most effective and that the phenol content could be used as a reliable biochemical marker to identify the productive genotypes having higher amounts of dietary antioxidants. The information could also be used for developing antioxidant rich cultivars, i.e. 'Breeding Strawberry for High Antioxidants'. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Singh B.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute |
Singh B.K.,Mizoram Center |
Sharma S.R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute |
Singh B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Euphytica | Year: 2012
Brassica vegetables are important source of dietary nutrition. However, information on the genetic combining ability of mineral elements such as iron, zinc, copper, manganese, potassium and calcium or their types of genetic effects (i. e. additive or non-additive) is scarce but important as it influences the selection of parents and breeding approaches to be adopted for improvement of nutritional quality of cabbage. Therefore, an attempt was made to estimate combining ability in a line × tester (5 × 11) mating design for minerals. Significant mean square for line × tester interaction was observed for all minerals under study indicating the prevalence of non-additive variance; while less than unity value of σ 2 gca /σ 2 sca ratio for iron, zinc, manganese, potassium and calcium accumulation indicate predominance of non-additive gene action. The parents 83-2, Pride of Asia, Pusa Mukta, Red Cabbage and MR-1 were found good general combiners for four mineral elements. The general combining ability effects of the parents for various minerals revealed that none of the parents excelled for all the minerals suggesting the need for multiple crossing approaches. The cross 83-1 × AC-1019 (Poor × Poor general combiner) exhibits desirable significant specific combining ability effects for all six minerals might be due to presence of high magnitude of non-additive especially complementary epistatic effects which can be utilize for commercial exploitation of heterosis. This study shows clearly that specific combining ability is more important than general combining ability for predicting hybrid combinations for high mineral content in cabbage head. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Singh B.K.,Mizoram Center |
Singh B.K.,Indian Institute of Vegetable Research |
Ramakrishna Y.,Mizoram Center |
Ngachan S.V.,ICAR RC NEH Region
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2014
Spiny coriander (Eryngium foetidum L.) is a leafy spice herb of tropical regions of world (America, South Asia, Pacific Islands, South Europe and Africa) which is used extensively for garnishing, marinating, flavouring and seasoning of foods. It is also used as an ethno-medicinal plant for the treatment of a number of ailments such as fevers, chills, vomiting, burns, fevers, hypertension, headache, earache, stomachache, asthma, arthritis, snake bites, scorpion stings, diarrhea, malaria and epilepsy. The main constituent of essential oil of the plant is eryngial (E-2-dodecenal). However, a significant variation in the plant morphology, composition of essential oil (>60 constituents reported) and secondary metabolites resulted from genetic variability and geographic location. Pharmacological investigations have demonstrated anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-convulsant, anti-clastogenic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-diabetic and anti-bacterial activity. Focus on holistic research approaches such as genetic enhancement to develop high yielding varieties (collection, conservation, evaluation, breeding and development of potential genotypes); efficient production technologies to harvest the plants in mass (cultivation under 50-75 % shed-net and spray of gibberellic acid at a concentration of 100 ppm); post-harvest management to minimize marketing loss; and medicinal/pharmaceutical investigations would be the best strategies to increase the yield and to promote industrial uses of E. foetidum as an economically relevant crop. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.