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Okazaki, Japan

Su'etsugu M.,Kyushu University | Su'etsugu M.,Rikkyo University | Harada Y.,Kyushu University | Harada Y.,Mizkan Group Corporation | And 7 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013

DnaA activity for replication initiation of the Escherichia coli chromosome is negatively regulated by feedback from the DNA-loaded form of the replicase clamp. In this process, called RIDA (regulatory inactivation of DnaA), ATP-bound DnaA transiently assembles into a complex consisting of Hda and the DNA-clamp, which promotes inter-AAA+ domain association between Hda and DnaA and stimulates hydrolysis of DnaA-bound ATP, producing inactive ADP-DnaA. Using a truncated DnaA mutant, we previously demonstrated that the DnaA N-terminal domain is involved in RIDA. However, the precise role of the N-terminal domain in RIDA has remained largely unclear. Here, we used an in vitro reconstituted system to demonstrate that the Asn-44 residue in the N-terminal domain of DnaA is crucial for RIDA but not for replication initiation. Moreover, an assay termed PDAX (pull-down after cross-linking) revealed an unstable interaction between a DnaA-N44A mutant and Hda. In vivo, this mutant exhibited an increase in the cellular level of ATP-bound DnaA. These results establish a model in which interaction between DnaA Asn-44 and Hda stabilizes the association between the AAA+ domains of DnaA and Hda to facilitate DnaA-ATP hydrolysis during RIDA. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Fukuda M.,Tohoku University | Watanabe S.,Tohoku University | Watanabe S.,Mizkan Group Corporation | Yoshida S.,University of Tsukuba | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2010

Paenibacillus sp. W-61 is capable of utilizing water-insoluble xylan for carbon and energy sources and has three xylanase genes, xyn1, xyn3, and xyn5. Xyn1, Xyn3, and Xyn5 are extracellular enzymes of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 11, 30, and 10, respectively. Xyn5 contains several domains including those of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) similar to a surface-layer homologous (SLH) protein. This study focused on the role of Xyn5, localized on the cell surface, in water-insoluble xylan utilization. Electron microscopy using immunogold staining revealed Xyn5 clusters over the entire cell surface. Xyn5 was bound to cell wall fractions through its SLH domain. A Δxyn5 mutant grew poorly and produced minimal amounts of Xyn1 and Xyn3 on water-insoluble xylan. A Xyn5 mutant lacking the SLH domain (Xyn5ΔSLH) grew poorly, secreting Xyn5ΔSLH into the medium and producing minimal Xyn1 and Xyn3 on water-insoluble xylan. A mutant with an intact xyn5 produced Xyn5 on the cell surface, grew normally, and actively synthesized Xyn1 and Xyn3 on water-insoluble xylan. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that xylobiose, generated from water-insoluble xylan decomposition by Xyn5, is the most active inducer for xyn1 and xyn3. Luciferase assays using a Xyn5-luciferase fusion protein suggested that xylotriose is the best inducer for xyn5. The cell surface Xyn5 appears to play two essential roles in water-insoluble xylan utilization: (i) generation of the xylo-oligosaccharide inducers of all the xyn genes from water-insoluble xylan and (ii) attachment of the cells to the substrate so that the generated inducers can be immediately taken up by cells to activate expression of the xyn system. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Onoue N.,Hokkaido University | Yamashita Y.,Hokkaido University | Nagao N.,Hokkaido University | Nagao N.,Mizkan Group Corporation | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011

Expression of the Arabidopsis CGS1 gene, encoding the first committed enzyme of methionine biosynthesis, is feedback-regulated in response to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) at the mRNA level. This regulation is first preceded by temporal arrest of CGS1 translation elongation at the Ser-94 codon. AdoMet is specifically required for this translation arrest, although the mechanism by which AdoMet acts with the CGS1 nascent peptide remained elusive. We report here that the nascent peptide of CGS1 is induced to form a compact conformation within the exit tunnel of the arrested ribosome in an AdoMet-dependent manner. Cysteine residues introduced into CGS1 nascent peptide showed reduced ability to react with polyethyleneglycol maleimide in the presence of AdoMet, consistent with a shift into the ribosomal exit tunnel. Methylation protection and UV cross-link assays of 28 S rRNA revealed that induced compaction of nascent peptide is associated with specific changes in methylation protection and UV cross-link patterns in the exit tunnel wall. A 14-residue stretch of amino acid sequence, termed the MTO1 region, has been shown to act in cis for CGS1 translation arrest and mRNA degradation. This regulation is lost in the presence of mto1 mutations, which cause single amino acid alterations within MTO1. In this study, both the induced peptide compaction and exit tunnel change were found to be disrupted by mto1 mutations. These results suggest that the MTO1 region participates in the AdoMet-induced arrest of CGS1 translation by mediating changes of the nascent peptide and the exit tunnel wall. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

Fukami H.,Mizkan Group Corporation | Tachimoto H.,Mizkan Group Corporation | Kishi M.,Mizkan Group Corporation | Kaga T.,Mizkan Group Corporation | Tanaka Y.,Tokyo Metropolitan University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Acetic acid bacteria, fermentative microorganisms of traditional foods, have unique alkali-stable lipids (ASL), such as dihydroceramide which is a precursor of sphingolipids. Sphingolipids are important components of the brain tissue. We examined the effect of oral administration of ASL in a rat model of dementia (7-week-old, male) with a basal forebrain lesion. In a water maze test, the dementia model rats demonstrated poor spatial orientation. The administration of ASL (165 or 1650 mg/kg of body weight per day, for 14 days) produced a significant improvement in learning ability in the dementia model rats. In vitro experiments showed ASL had the ability to promote neurite outgrowth in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Among the ASL components, dihydroceramide has the most potent effect on the differentiation of PC12 cells. It is highly possible that oral administration of dihydroceramide-containing ASL reverses the decline in cognitive function in dementia. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Kada S.,Mizkan Group Corporation | Ishikawa A.,Mizkan Group Corporation | Ohshima Y.,Mizkan Group Corporation | Yoshida K.-I.,Kobe University
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Natto is a traditional Japanese food made from soybeans fermented by natto starter strains of Bacillus subtilis natto. It has been suggested that extracellular protease activity released by the bacteria are involved in the production of poly-γ-glutamate (γ-PGA) during natto fermentation. One of the natto starters, strain r22, possesses at least seven genes, each of which encoded an extracellular protease orthologous to its counterpart in B. subtilis 168, aprE, bpr, epr, mpr, nprE, vpr, and wprA, but it was found to lack nprB. Inactivating the aprE ortholog alone resulted in a severe decrease in γ-PGA production and in the total extracellular protease activity. The defect in γ-PGA production of the mutant lacking the aprE ortholog was complemented when the medium was supplemented with sufficient glutamate. These results suggest that the alkaline serine protease encoded by aprE plays an indispensable role in supplying materials to produce γ-PGA. On the other hand, simultaneous inactivation of all the protease genes except for aprE did not significantly affect either γ-PGA production or total protease activity. Source

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