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Kamei I.,University of Miyazaki | Nitta T.,Miyazaki Prefectural Forestry Technology Center | Nagano Y.,University of Miyazaki | Yamaguchi M.,University of Miyazaki | And 2 more authors.
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation

Spent mushroom waste (SMW) produced by Lentinula edodes cultivation was evaluated for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) fermentation using ethanol-fermenting white-rot fungus Phlebia sp. MG-60. The chemical structure and digestibility of SMW produced in the factory were affected by the fruit body budding process. The multiple fruiting body budding and harvesting process accompanied by an extension of the culture period did not reduce the value of the biomass feedstock. Solvent extraction of SMW improved the fermentability at the early phase of ethanol production, indicating the presence of inhibitors in SMW. However, because ethanol production recovered at a late phase of incubation, these inhibitors may have been neutralized by MG-60. Laccase activity was observed in the fermenting culture of the early phase. The combination of edible mushroom cultivation and CBP fermentation has potential as a new bioethanol production process that is cost effective and has little environmental impact. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Nitta T.,Miyazaki Prefectural Forestry Technology Center | Kamei I.,University of Miyazaki | Sugamoto K.,University of Miyazaki | Meguro S.,University of Miyazaki
Journal of Wood Science

The effects of the gaseous phase rate of kunugi (Quercus acutissima) sawdust media mixed with sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) determined by a three-phase-structure analysis of the fruiting body yields of shiitake were investigated. The fruiting body yield on kunugi media was significantly lower than that on commercially available hardwood-sawdust-mixture (HSM) media with 64 % water content. Three-phase-structure analysis showed that the gaseous phase rate in kunugi media was lower than that in HSM media. When the gaseous phase rate in kunugi media was increased to the level in HSM media by decreasing the water content to 56 %, the fruiting body yield on kunugi media also increased. These results suggested that kunugi sawdust could be used for shiitake cultivation if the gaseous phase rate in the media was optimized. Because sugi has a lower specific gravity and higher porosity than kunugi, mixing sugi sawdust up to 30 % with kunugi media caused an increase in the gaseous phase rate, and the fruiting body yield reached the same level as that in HSM media. These results suggested that kunugi media could be used for shiitake cultivation by mixing with sugi sawdust. © 2016 The Japan Wood Research Society Source

Tsuyoshi K.,Kyushu University | Shigejiro Y.,Kyushu University | Keiko N.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Takuhiko M.,Niigata University | And 9 more authors.
Nihon Ringakkai Shi/Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society

Since 1990's, In Kyushu region, the abandonment of sites after clear-cutting plantations is increasing rapidly in Japan. Abandoned clear-cut sites may result in reduced soil and water conservation. In this study, we investigated erosions, osions, landslides and factors limiting vegetation recovery (e.g. Damage caused by browsing by sika deer and invasion by bamboo and luxuriant vine species) in 199 abandoned clear-cut sites in the Kyushu region. Among 199 sites, 8 sites (4.2%) showed severe erosions and landslides. However, 125 sites (62.8%) showed some factors limiting vegetation recovery. Thus, the abandoned clear-cut sites are problematic, and browsing by sika deer and invasion by bamboo or vine may add limiting vegetation recovery to this problem, although a few of severe erosions and landslides currently. Source

Takuhiko M.,Niigata University | Shigejiro Y.,Kyushu University | Tetsuji O.,Kyushu University | Nobuya M.,Kyushu University | And 8 more authors.
Nihon Ringakkai Shi/Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society

To quantify non-reforested ested area (NRA) in the Kyushu region, we analyzed the occurrence rate of NRAs in each prefecture and their spatial distribution. To determine reforestation after coniferous plantation forest clear cutting, we analyzed images to determine changes in area using multi-temporal remotely sensed imagery. We studied two periods, from 1998 to 2002 (first period) and after 2002 (second period), to determine changes in NRA between the two periods. Point-based analysis showed that the NRA occurrence rate for the entire Kyushu main island in the first and second periods was 30.9 and 24.3%, respectively. Mapping the NRA spatial distribution using GIS showed that NRAs were concentrated in specific areas in both the first and second periods, rather than being distributed uniformly in the forested regions of Kyushu. The cut area of coniferous plantation forests and NRA were totaled using the Japanese secondary mesh unit, with the NRA occurrence rate calculated via mesh unit. In comparing the first and second periods, we found that most of the meshes showing extremely high NRAs (occurrence rate >50%) were not located in the same place in the two periods. Thus, the occurrence of NRAs shifted between the two periods, with NRAs distributed more widely in the second period. Source

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