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Waki M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Yasuda T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Suzuki K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Sakai T.,Saga Prefecture Livestock Experiment Station | And 11 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

This paper presents a quantitative investigation and analysis of anammox activity in sludge taken from biological swine wastewater treatment plants. An incubation experiment using a 15N tracer technique showed anammox activity in sludge taken from 6 out of 13 plants with the rate ranging from 0.0036 μmol-N2/g-VSS/h to 3.1 μmol-N2/g-VSS/h, and in a biofilm with the highest activity at 25.8 μmol-N2/g-VSS/h. It is notable that 9 out of 11 sludges in which the pH was maintained between 6.6 and 8.1 retained anammox activity, while those with either a lower or higher pH did not. Moreover, anammox-positive sludge had a significantly higher concentration of NO2- s(-) N plus NO3- s(-) N than did anammox-negative sludge. A significant difference was not observed between anammox-positive and -negative sludge regarding BOD / NH4+ s(-) N in the influent, DO concentration in aeration tanks, and the concentrations of NH4+ s(-) N, free nitric acid, and free ammonia. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Tsuzuki Y.,University of Miyazaki | Toyama H.,University of Miyazaki | Nabenishi H.,University of Miyazaki | Nabenishi H.,Miyazaki Livestock Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2010

We investigated the effect of various concentrations of taurine during in vitro fertilization (IVF) on the embryonic development up to the blastocyst stage of bovine oocytes fertilized with three different Japanese Black bulls (Bull A, B and C). In vitro matured oocytes were fertilized with various concentrations of taurine (0, 1, 10, 50 and 100 mM) in the presence of 2.5 or 5.0 mM caffeine plus 25 μg/ml heparin (CH) for 6 hr or 100 μg/ml heparin (H) for 24±2 h. After IVF, the cleavage rates from the 2 to 16 cell stage determined at 3 days and the development rates up to the blastocyst stage determined at 7-8 days from the onset of IVF were assessed. Although the cleavage rates for the taurine concentration groups were not significantly increased in any of the three bulls in the CH groups, the development rates up to the blastocyst stage of the 50 mM taurine group of Bulls A and B, and of the 1 to 50 mM groups of Bull C were increased (p<0.05) compared to those of the control (0 mM taurine) groups. On the other hand, none of the bulls in the H groups showed any significant increase either in the cleavage rates or blastocyst formation rates in any taurine concentrations groups compared with those of the control groups. These results indicate that the addition of 50 mM taurine to a fertilization medium containing caffeine and heparin may stimulate embryonic development up to the blastocyst stage when fertilized with different bull semen. Source


Akiyama K.,Kanagawa Prefectural Livestock Industry Technical Center | Kobayashi J.,Fukushima Agricultural Technology Center | Sato Y.,Niigata Agricultural Research Institute | Sata R.,Tochigi Prefectural Dairy Farming Experiment Station | And 6 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to develop an in-straw dilution method suitable for direct transfer of vitrified bovine sexed embryos. Embryo sexing was performed by molecular diagnosis. Several sexed and vitrified-warmed embryos were transferred after evaluation of morphologically embryonic survival at warming and in-straw dilution (Evaluation group). The other embryos were immediately directly transferred to recipients without first being expelled from the straws after in-straw dilution (Non-evaluation group). The pregnancy rates of vitrified sexed embryos were 38.7% and 34.8% in the Evaluation group and Non-evaluation group, respectively, which were not significantly different. The viability of lower quality embryos before vitrification tended to be lower (P = 0.087) than that of the higher quality embryos regardless of evaluating embryos after warming and in-straw dilution. The abortion rates were similar, and there was no difference between the two groups (13.9% and 12.5%, respectively). These results demonstrate that vitrified bovine sexed embryos can be vitrified and diluted by the in-straw method and that the vitrified and warmed sexed embryos can develop to term. © 2010 The Authors; Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source


Suzuki K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Waki M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Yasuda T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Fukumoto Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 5 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

Changes in swine wastewater chemical features during an activated sludge treatment process were surveyed on 11 farms, and analyzed with non-biodegradable elements, i.e., phosphorus (P), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). In piggery wastewater, they were linearly correlated with suspended solid (SS) concentrations and the major portion was in solid fractions. After the pretreatment step, they were removed, with 80% for total P, 85% for total Cu, and 84% for total Zn. After the activated sludge process, total P, Cu, and Zn were then removed at 83%, 96%, and 95%, respectively. Removing SS thoroughly at each step was shown to be the most important factor in preventing outflow of these elements, since there are linear correlations or a positive relationship between the removal of SS concentrations and their removal in solid form. Most of the P, Cu, and Zn in activated sludge effluent was in soluble form, and the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the effluent were low enough, while further P removal might be required. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Endo R.,University of Miyazaki | Ishii A.,University of Miyazaki | Nakanishi A.,University of Miyazaki | Nabenishi H.,University of Miyazaki | And 3 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2010

We investigated the effects of various concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB, 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 mM), a ketone body, added to chemically-defined maturation medium with or without energy substrates (glucose, pyruvate and lactate) on nuclear maturation rates up to the metaphase stage of the second meiotic division (M-II stage). In addition, we also assessed the influence of BHB on glutathione content, sperm penetration rate and embryonic development up to the blastocyst stage of oocytes matured under the presence of these energy substrates. Nuclear maturation rates up to the M-II stage of oocytes matured with BHB in each concentration group did not show a significant increase compared with the control (0 mM) groups in both the presence and absence of energy substrates. Although glutathione contents were not significantly different in each BHB concentration group, the sperm penetration rate in the 1 mM BHB group was significantly higher (p<0.05) and the embryonic development rate of oocytes up to the blastocyst stage was significantly lower (p<0.05) than the respective values of the control groups. These results suggest that BHB added to a chemically-defined maturation medium may stimulate sperm penetration while inhibiting embryonic development of porcine oocytes. Source

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