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Toda S.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Hirata K.,Nippon Soda Company Ltd | Yamamoto A.,Nippon Soda Company Ltd | Matsuura A.,Miyazaki Agricultural Research Institute
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2017

Aphis gossypii Glover is a cosmopolitan and polyphagous aphid species. When neonicotinoid-resistant clones of A. gossypii were recently found in Japan, it was subsequently discovered that a point mutation (R81T) in the D-loop region of the β1 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene had conferred this resistance. To quickly identify this neonicotinoid-resistant allele, we developed a molecular diagnostics test using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method that targeted the R81T mutation. © 2016, The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology.


Hori K.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Kataoka T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Miura K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Yamaguchi M.,Akita | And 5 more authors.
Breeding Science | Year: 2012

To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the primary target traits for selection in practical rice breeding programs, backcross inbred lines (BILs) derived from crosses between temperate japonica rice cultivars Nipponbare and Koshihikari were evaluated for 50 agronomic traits at six experimental fields located throughout Japan. Thirty-three of the 50 traits were significantly correlated with heading date. Using a linkage map including 647 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a total of 122 QTLs for 38 traits were mapped on all rice chromosomes except chromosomes 5 and 9. Fifty-eight of the 122 QTLs were detected near the heading date QTLs Hd16 and Hd17 and the remaining 64 QTLs were found in other chromosome regions. QTL analysis of 51 BILs having homozygous for the Koshihikari chromosome segments around Hd16 and Hd17 allowed us to detect 40 QTLs associated with 27 traits; 23 of these QTLs had not been detected in the original analysis. Among the 97 QTLs for the 30 traits measured in multiple environments, the genotype-by-environment interaction was significant for 44 QTLs and not significant for 53 QTLs. These results led us to propose a new selection strategy to improve agronomic performance in temperate japonica rice cultivars.


Sugita T.,Miyazaki Agricultural Research Institute | Semi Y.,Miyazaki Agricultural Research Institute | Sawada H.,Kochi Prefectural Agriculture Research Center | Sawada H.,Kochi Agricultural College | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2013

To facilitate marker-assisted breeding and genetic analyses of pepper (Capsicum annuum), we developed non-redundant 2- or 3-base simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from enriched C. annuum genomic libraries and from C. annuum cDNA sequences in public databases. The SSR-enriched libraries were constructed using combinations of three restriction enzymes (AluI, HaeIII, and RsaI) and two biotinylated oligonucleotides [b(GA)15 and b(CA)15]. Ultimately, we obtained 1,736 genomic SSR markers and 1,344 cDNA-derived SSR markers from 6,528 clones and 13,003 sequences, respectively. We mapped 597 markers, including 265 of the newly developed SSR markers, onto a linkage map by using doubled-haploid (DH) lines derived from an intraspecific cross of two pure lines of C. annuum (K9-11 × MZC-180). The map, designated as the KL-DH map, consisted of 12 linkage groups. The map covered a genetic distance of 2,028 cM, and the average distance between markers was less than 4 cM. The frame structure of the KL-DH map was compared with the published standard conserved ortholog set II (COSII) map, which was derived from an interspecific F2 population (C. frutescens × C. annuum), by using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chromosomal sequences to bridge the two maps. The intraspecific KL-DH map constructed in this study and the interspecific COSII map were similar in map length and marker distribution, suggesting that the KL-DH map covers nearly the whole genome of C. annuum. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Wada H.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Nonami H.,Ehime University | Yabuoshi Y.,Miyazaki Agricultural Research Institute | Maruyama A.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2011

Foehn-induced dry wind during grain filling increased ring-shaped chalky kernels in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants. The objective of this study was to determine physiological mechanisms of the occurrence of ring-shaped chalky kernels. Rice plants were subjected to water deficit in a paddy field after shade by applying dry high-speed wind. Additionally, a growth chamber experiment was conducted with plants in pots to measure the water status under the dry wind condition for 24 h by combining in situ turgor (Ψ p) assay in developing endosperms with the water potential measurements. The dry (high vapor pressure deficit [VPD]) wind treatment produced the largest number of ring-shaped chalky kernels due to poor starch accumulation, compared with shade or low-VPD wind treatment. The inner endosperm cells, where a high frequency of chalkiness was observed, spatially maintained Ψ p by osmotic adjustment before the chalky formation with no decline of grain weight. Dry wind reduced photosynthesis due to a partial stomatal closure after water deficit developed. However, these responses, including those related to the plant water status, returned to a level similar to those of the control plants in a day after the dry wind was stopped. We conclude that (i) Ψ p maintenance by osmotic adjustment contributes to grain development under water deficit under foehn conditions and (ii) osmotic adjustment has a role in temporally inhibiting starch accumulation in endosperms, resulting in ring-shaped chalky kernels under foehn-induced water deficit conditions. © Crop Science Society of America.


Honsho C.,University of Miyazaki | Inada M.,University of Miyazaki | Yuji K.-I.,Miyazaki Agricultural Research Institute | Tojiki M.,Miyazaki Agricultural Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2012

Although Japanese mango is produced under a fairly unique cultivation system and fetches high prices at market, further growth of the mango industry in Japan requires the development of new cultivars. However, since individual mango flowers are quite small, no more than 1 cm in diameter, a large number of skilled workers is necessary for artificial pollination, thus making it difficult to obtain a sufficient number of progenies for breeding. We therefore evaluated a methodology whereby progenies were obtained by open pollination and their male parent was subsequently determined by DNA markers. Two mango cultivars ('Irwin' and 'Beni-Keitt') were arranged in a plastic house and honeybees were released as a pollen vector for open pollination. Harvested fruits were characterized and their seeds were sown in a bed. The male parent of the germinated seedlings was then identified by five simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. As a result of SSR genotyping, the male parents of 185 of 239 'Irwin' seedlings were revealed; 79 were obtained by self-pollination and 106 from out-crossing. For 'Beni-Keitt', the male parent of 14 of the 20 seedlings was determined with two self-pollinated and 12 out-crossed. Preferential out-crossing in 'Irwin' was revealed using the chi-square test, although the considerable number of self-pollinated fruit obtained shows that a sufficient number of fruit can be set in a single-planted orchard. The effect of the male parent on fruit characteristics was subsequently examined, revealing that in 'Irwin' the Brix value of self-pollinated fruits was significantly higher than that of cross-pollinated fruits. Certain color values were, however, lower in self-pollinated 'Irwin' fruits. © 2012.


Tominaga M.,University of Miyazaki | Tanaka T.,University of Miyazaki | Sakoda T.,University of Miyazaki | Mizoguchi N.,Miyazaki Agricultural Research Institute | Kushima Y.,Miyazaki Agricultural Research Institute
Proceedings - 2015 IIAI 4th International Congress on Advanced Applied Informatics, IIAI-AAI 2015 | Year: 2015

Miyazaki prefecture in Japan promotes agricultural food industry in recent year. One of the activities is promotion of agricultural and livestock products. However, Miyazaki prefecture is very far from large-scale consumption areas such as Tokyo and Osaka. To keep freshness of agricultural and livestock products during their transport is a serious problem from a viewing of putrefaction due to blight outbreak. Apple Mango has been a very famous and representative product in Miyazaki prefecture and it has successfully continued to make a good profit. However, fruit rot disease such as Anthrax Pathogen after harvest is serious [1] [2] [3]. Therefore, a sterilization technique is strongly required. We here generated the dielectric barrier discharge plasma in water mist, which may possible to sterilize the whole of greengrocery because of its high diffusibility. We examined fungicidal activity against Colletotrichum sp. © 2015 IEEE.


Nakamura K.,Miyazaki Agricultural Research Institute | Nakamura K.,University of Miyazaki | Fukumoto K.,Miyazaki Agricultural Research Institute | Akashi R.,University of Miyazaki
Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2010

In Japan, the use of forced culture conditions to produce sweetpea (Lathyrus odoratus L.) cut flowers has flourished. The tendril-less trait that results in compound leaves instead of tendrils is a very important trait for forced flower production because removing unnecessary tendrils markedly increases the amount of labor and production management costs. Thirty-five morphological and cultural characteristics were examined in 38 sweetpea cultivars. We analyzed the relationship between characteristics, especially those deemed important for reducing labor costs such as the tendril-less trait, and calculated correlation coefficients. Cluster analysis was also employed to evaluate the dataset and it showed that 38 cultivars could be classified into 3 clusters. Cluster I cultivars are recommended as garden-type plants because their initial flower buds were too late to be forced. Cluster II cultivars are suitable as cut flower type plants. Cluster III cultivars are appropriate as garden or container-type plants because the peduncles were too short to use as cut flowers. Furthermore, the results of principal component analysis indicated some important factors for classification of cultivars. These were consistent with the results of cluster analysis. Our analysis of the morphological and cultural characteristics of sweetpea grown under conditions to force flowering provides a foundation for the efficient breeding of this important horticultural plant. © 2010 JSHS.


Ishibashi M.,Osaka University | Ando T.,Miyazaki Agricultural Research Institute | Sakai M.,Miyazaki Agricultural Research Institute | Matsubara A.,Osaka University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2012

Combination techniques such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) are commonly used for pesticide residue analysis, but there is no reported method for the simultaneous analysis of multiple pesticides in a sample using a single instrument. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) offers high resolution at high flow rates and various separation modes and hence may aid the rapid simultaneous analysis of pesticide. We developed an SFC/MS/MS method and analyzed 17 pesticides with a wide range of polarities (logPow=-4.6 to 7.05) and molecular weights (112.1-888.6) within 11min using a polar-embedded reversed-phase column. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report on the SFC analysis of a wide variety of compounds, including highly hydrophilic ones. By SFC, diquat dibromide (logPow=-4.6), together with cypermethrin (logPow=6.6) and tralomethrin (logPow=5.05), could be detected in the presence of various other pesticides using a single mobile phase. SFC/MS allows for the rapid and simultaneous analysis of low concentrations (ng/L levels) of pesticides that typically need to be analyzed by GC/MS and LC/MS separately. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Ishibashi M.,Osaka University | Izumi Y.,Osaka University | Sakai M.,Osaka University | Sakai M.,Miyazaki Agricultural Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Recently, a generally applicable screening method for multiresidue pesticide analysis, which is simple, quick, and accurate and has a reliable performance, is becoming increasingly important for food safety and international trade. This paper proposes a high-throughput screening methodology that enables the detection of multiresidue pesticides using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to a high-performance benchtop quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry (SFC/Q Exactive) and an automated library-based detection. A total of 444 chemicals covering a wide polarity range (logPow from -4.2 to 7.7) and a wide molecular weight range (from 99.0 to 872.5) were analyzed simultaneously through a combination of high mass resolution (a value of m/Δm = 70000), high mass accuracy (<5 ppm) with positive/negative polarity switching, and highly efficient separation by SFC. A total of 373 pesticides were detected in QuEChERS spinach extracts without dispersive solid phase extraction at the 10 μg kg-1 level (provisional maximum residue limits in Japan). In conclusion, the developed analytical system is a potentially useful tool for practical multiresidue pesticide screening with high throughput (time for data acquisition, 72 samples per day; and time for data processing of 72 samples, approximately 45 min). © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Matsuura A.,Miyazaki Agricultural Research Institute | Nakamura M.,Miyazaki Agricultural Research Institute
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2014

A neonicotinoid-resistant Aphis gossypii Glover population was first detected from cucumber and sweet pepper crops in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, in April 2012. In this study, we determined the insecticide susceptibility of five field-collected populations of A. gossypii to seven neonicotinoids. Insecticide susceptibility was determined by performing bioassays and using the seedling-treatment method. Insecticide susceptibility of a susceptible population of A. gossypii, originally collected from a cucumber field in 2008, was also determined. High mortality (96.4–100 %) was observed in the susceptible population for the seven insecticides. In contrast, the mortality rate of the five field-collected populations collected in 2012 was low for five of the seven neonicotinoid insecticides tested: imidacloprid (26.7–65.5 %), dinotefuran (0–27.3 %), clothianidin (20.0–35.7 %), thiamethoxam (7.1–42.3 %), and nitenpyram (6.7–32.1 %). Mortality was 86.2–100 % for acetamiprid and 90.2–100 % for thiacloprid. The resistance ratio in comparison with the susceptible population was the highest for clothianidin (687-fold), lowest for thiacloprid (17-fold), and ranged from 43- to 253-fold for the other five neonicotinoids. Thus, the frequency of insecticide use needs to be reduced and other insecticides need to be employed in order to prevent the development of resistance to these two insecticides in the future. © 2014, The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology.

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