Miyagi University is a public university located in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. Established in 1997, the university has currently two campuses in Miyagi prefecture, after merging with Miyagi Agricultural College in 2005. The university is often called "MYU" or "Miya-Dai" for an abbreviation. Wikipedia.
Roy P.,University of Guelph |
Orikasa T.,Miyagi University |
Tokuyasu K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Nakamura N.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Shiina T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012
This study evaluated the life cycle of bioethanol produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw. Net energy consumption, CO 2 emission and production costs were estimated to determine whether environmentally preferable and economically viable bioethanol can be produced from rice straws. Two varieties of rice straw (Koshihikari and Leafstar), three energy scenarios (F-E-RH: Fuel-Electricity-Residues used for Heat; F-E-RE: Fuel-Electricity-Residues used to generate Electricity; F-RE: Fuel-Residues used to generate Electricity) and three types of primary energy (heavy oil; LNG: liquefied natural gas; agri-residues) were considered. The net energy consumption, CO 2 emission and production costs were estimated to be 10.0-17.6MJ/L, -0.5 to 1.6kg/L and 84.9-144.3¥/L (1 US$≈100¥), respectively, depending on the feedstock and scenarios of this study. A shift in energy scenarios or in the type of primary energy (heavy oil to LNG or agri-residues) not only reduces emissions and production costs of bioethanol from rice straw, but may also reduce the fluctuation in production cost over time and risk on investment, which would encourage more investment in this sector. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Morita K.,Food Research Institute |
Shimoyamada M.,Miyagi University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013
The mechanism underlying the freeze-thaw fractionation of 7S and 11S globulins in soymilk was investigated. Freeze-thawed soymilk demonstrated an increased particle size compared with raw soymilk. Further, when defatted raw soymilk was freeze-thawed, it was fractionated into 7S (supernatant) and 11S (precipitate) globulins, similar to what is found with freeze-thaw of raw soymilk. When raw soymilk samples with different ratios of 11S/7S were freeze-thawed, the 11S-deficient variety showed no precipitate. The addition of sodium sulphite or sodium dodecyl sulphate also inhibited precipitate formation after freeze-thawing, resulting in no fractionation. These results suggest that the fractionation is due to selective precipitation of aggregates of 11S globulins and/or 11S globulins and lipid complexes, in which the protein molecules interact through disulphide bonds and/or hydrophobic interactions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sugimoto S.,Tohoku University |
Takahashi N.,Miyagi University |
Hanawa K.,Tohoku University
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2013
Changes in salinity of the North Pacific subtropical mode water (STMW) were investigated using profiles for 2003-2011. In 2009 and 2010, the STMW freshened markedly (S < 34.7 psu), with salinity 0.1 psu lower than other years. Freshening in 2009 was caused by excess rainfall in the 2008 warm season, which was related to an increase in the number of low pressures passing over the STMW formation region associated with a southeastward shrinkage of the summertime North Pacific subtropical high. The freshening signal persisted under the seasonal pycnocline during the 2009 warm season. This resulted in the freshening of STMW in 2010. Key Points We investigated salinity changes using Argo float The STMW freshened markedly in 2009 and 2010 The freshening was caused by excess rainfall in the 2008 warm season ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Takahashi N.,Miyagi University
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan | Year: 2013
A long-term (1948-2009) frontal data set was created with an objective method by using NCEP-NCAR (National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research) reanalysis data. This method utilizes a gradient and a thermal front parameter (TFP) of a potential temperature and an equivalent potential temperature at 850 hPa (dθ, TFP(θ), and TFP(θe)). The TFP defined as the directional derivative of a gradient of a thermodynamic variable along its gradient is one of the measures of frontal intensity and is often used for objectively analyzing frontal positions on surface weather maps. On the basis of the frontal data set, the average seasonal behavior of the frontal zone around Japan, its influence on the weather in mid-summer, and the seasonal march of the frontal zone during El Niño/La Niña events were examined. The main results are summarized in the following points: 1) The frontal data set generated under the conditions of dθ > 0.04 K (100 km)-1, TFP(θ) > 0.05 K (100 km)-2, and TFP(θe) > 0.69 K (100 km)-2 showed the strongest correlation to that compiled by counting the number of fronts on the surface weather maps around Japan. 2) Although the long-term frontal data set created in this study retained some differences in frequency, the seasonal march of the frontal zone was consistent with that created from fronts on the weather maps. 3) The relationship of interannual mid-summer variations (July 20-August 16) between the clear-sky ratio of Japan and the frontal zone and various mean characteristics of the Japanese climate during El Niño/La Niña events, most of which have been discussed in previous reports, were verified from the perspective of the variability in the frontal zone, which has not been clarified so far. These results of this work show that the frontal data set created herein has the advantage of being simple and objective and is useful for research on the detailed relationship in interannual variations between the regional climate around Japan and large-scale atmospheric conditions. © 2013, Meteorological Society of Japan.
Kamath S.D.,James Cook University |
Rahman A.M.A.,Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute |
Rahman A.M.A.,Memorial University of Newfoundland |
Komoda T.,Miyagi University |
Lopata A.L.,James Cook University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013
The major heat-stable shellfish allergen, tropomyosin, demonstrates immunological cross-reactivity, making specific differentiation of crustaceans and molluscs for food labelling very difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of allergen-specific monoclonal antibodies in differential detection of shellfish-derived tropomyosin in 11 crustacean and 7 mollusc species, and to study the impact of heating on its detection. Cross-reactive tropomyosin was detected in all crustacean species, with partial detection in molluscs: mussels, scallops and snails but none in oyster, octopus and squid. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that heating of shellfish has a profound effect on tropomyosin detection. This was evident by the enhanced recognition of multiple tropomyosin variants in the analysed shellfish species. Specific monoclonal antibodies, targetting the N-terminal region of tropomyosin, must therefore be developed to differentiate tropomyosins in crustaceans and molluscs. This can help in correct food labelling practices and thus protection of consumers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Makanae K.,Miyagi University
Computing in Civil and Building Engineering - Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering | Year: 2014
In the design process, a virtual model, which can be called an information structure, is built up using information in a virtual space. The information structures used in construction are propagated as a design progresses. However, this process has not been sufficiently analyzed and optimized for computer-based design. This paper summarizes the concept of information propagation in the construction process and analyzes the information flow in the process of highway design. The analysis of the highway design process clarifies the problems with the conventional paper-based method of highway design. The systematic flow of a computer-based highway geometric design method is shown and the need for a paradigm shift in the highway design method and the relationships between designers, system developers, and verifiers are discussed. © ASCE 2014.
Eusebio-Cope A.,Okayama University |
Sun L.,Northwest University, China |
Tanaka .,Okayama University |
Chiba S.,Okayama University |
And 2 more authors.
Virology | Year: 2015
The chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, is an important plant pathogenic ascomycete. The fungus hosts a wide range of viruses and now has been established as a model filamentous fungus for studying virus/host and virus/virus interactions. This is based on the development of methods for artificial virus introduction and elimination, host genome manipulability, available host genome sequence with annotations, host mutant strains, and molecular tools. Molecular tools include sub-cellular distribution markers, gene expression reporters, and vectors with regulatable promoters that have been long available for unicellular organisms, cultured cells, individuals of animals and plants, and certain filamentous fungi. A comparison with other filamentous fungi such as Neurospora crassa has been made to establish clear advantages and disadvantages of C. parasitica as a virus host. In addition, a few recent studies on RNA silencing vs. viruses in this fungus are introduced. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Harada S.,Miyagi University |
Komuro Y.,Miyagi University
Chemosphere | Year: 2010
The use of porous concrete columns to decrease the amount of zinc in stormwater runoff is examined. The concentration of zinc in a simulated stormwater fluid (zinc acetate solution), fed through concrete columns (∅10 × 10 cm) decreased by 50-81%, suggesting physical adsorption of zinc by the porous concrete. We propose the use of porous concrete columns (∅50 × 10 cm) as the base of sewage traps. Longer-term, high-zinc concentration monitoring revealed that porous concrete blocks adsorb 38.6 mg cm-3 of zinc. A period of no significant zinc runoff (with an acceptable concentration of zinc in runoff of 0.03 mg L-1, a zinc concentration equal to the Japanese Environmental Standard) is estimated for 41 years using a 1-ha catchment area with 20 porous concrete sewage traps. Scanning electron microscopy of the porous concrete used in this study indicates that the needle-like particles formed by hydration action significantly increase zinc adsorption. Evidence suggests that the hydrant is ettringite and has an important role in zinc adsorption, the resulting immobilization of zinc and the subsequent effects on groundwater quality. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kishima J.,Miyagi University |
Harada S.,Miyagi University |
Sakurai R.,Miyagi University
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2011
Restoration of Zostera japonica is needed. Laboratory culture experiments to know the germination characteristics might be helpful for implementation of actual restoration. As a part of germination experiments, we explored suitable water temperature for long-term storage of Z. japonica seeds. This work was based on earlier reports of Zostera marina, which presumably has similar physiological properties to Z. japonica. This study consisted of two experiments: (1) preservation experiments to investigate the fate of stored Z. japonica seeds and (2) germination experiments to investigate the germination potential of the stored seeds. The results of the preservation experiments suggested that seed condition, that is, germinated, degraded, unstable, stable, etc., showed variations between the seeds stored at 4 and 23. °C. The majority of the seeds stored at 4. °C were germinated, while those at 23. °C seemed to be degraded, presumably by bacteria and mold. The germination experiments suggested high germination potential of seeds stored at 4. °C even after 302 days had elapsed. In conclusion, including previously reported results on Z. marina, low temperature was suitable for the preservation of seeds to maintain germination potential. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Monobe K.,Miyagi University
Civil-Comp Proceedings | Year: 2015
This paper shows two systems. One is a system which automatically extracts spatial information safely and securely from the information on the WWW. Another is a system for offering safe and secure information with augmented reality on a smartphone. In the first system, an automatic search of the WWW and the natural language processing realizes the acquisition extraction of safe and secure information, and plots the information on a map. In the second system, information of the dangerous area is registered in a smartphone, and when a user approaches the dangerous area, the smartphone signals with vibration, sound or augmented reality. By using these systems, a user can leave dangerous areas and a user's awareness of disaster prevention can be raised. © Civil-Comp Press, 2015.