Miyagi Prefecture Animal Industry Experiment Station

Miyagi, Japan

Miyagi Prefecture Animal Industry Experiment Station

Miyagi, Japan
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Katayama M.,Tohoku University | Fukuda T.,Tohoku University | Okamura T.,Tohoku University | Suzuki E.,Miyagi University | And 4 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

In pig production, dietary additive antibiotics are usually used for growth stimulation and disease prevention, although there is public concern about the increased incidence of resistant antibiotics and food safety. It is possible that such antibiotics might be replaced by naturally derived products such as seaweed and licorice. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary addition of seaweed and licorice on enhancing the immune function in swine. The animals of each group (eight animals per group) were sensitized at day 42 and 49, and the immunoglobulin production and the expression of cytokines were detected by the ELISA and real-time PCR. As the results, saliva IgA production of the seaweed-treated group increased around five times compared to that of control (day 56). Delayed hypersensitivity reaction and IgG production of the seaweed-treated group increased around 1.8-2.0 times. In addition, enhanced saliva IgA production was detected at day 50 (around two times) and day 51 (around five times) by the licorice treatment, and lower expression level of tumor necrosis factor-α messenger RNA at day 51 (around 1/25) was observed in the licorice treatment. We conclude that the replacement of antibiotics by naturally derived dietary additives might be feasible for immune system enhancement. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.


Uemoto Y.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Kikuchi T.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Nakano H.,Tohoku University | Sato S.,National Livestock Breeding Center | And 5 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2012

The leptin receptor (LEPR) gene is considered a candidate gene for fatness traits. It is located on SSC 6 in a region in which quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for backfat thickness (BF), fat area ratios, and serum leptin concentration (LEPC) have previously been detected in a Duroc purebred population. The objectives of the present study were to identify porcine LEPR polymorphisms and examine the effects of LEPR polymorphisms on fatness traits in this same population. The Duroc pigs (226 to 953 pigs) were evaluated for BF, fat area ratios using image analysis, and LEPC. A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the full-length LEPR coding region were identified in pigs from the base population. Four non-synonymous SNPs of the LEPR gene and 15 microsatellite markers on SSC 6 were then genotyped in all pigs. During candidate gene analysis, we detected significant effects of the non-synonymous SNP c.2002C>T in exon 14 on all traits. In fine mapping analysis, significant QTLs for BF, fat area ratios, and LEPC were detected near the LEPR gene in the same region. These results indicated that the c.2002C>T SNP of LEPR has a strong effect on BF, fat area ratios and LEPC. © 2011 The Authors; Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.


Uemoto Y.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Soma Y.,Tohoku University | Sato S.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Ishida M.,Miyagi University | And 4 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2012

The fatty acid composition and melting point of fatty tissue are among the most important economic traits in pig breeding because of their influence on the eating quality of meat. Identifying the quantitative trait locus (QTL) of these traits may help reveal the genetic structure of fatty acid composition and the melting point of fatty tissue and improve meat-quality traits by marker-assisted selection. We conducted whole-genome QTL analysis for fatty acid composition and melting point of inner and outer subcutaneous fat and inter- and intramuscular fat in a purebred Duroc population. A total of 129 markers were genotyped and used for QTL analysis. For fatty acid compositions of inner and outer subcutaneous fat, three significant QTL and 17 suggestive QTL were detected on SSC2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14 and 18. For the melting point of inner and outer subcutaneous fat, two significant QTL were detected on the same region of SSC14. For fatty acid compositions of inter- and intramuscular fat, five significant QTL and 13 suggestive QTL were detected on SSC2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 14 and 15. On SSC14, significant QTL for C18:0 and C18:1 of outer subcutaneous fat and intramuscular fat, and melting point of subcutaneous fat, which had high likelihood of odds (LOD) scores (2.67-5.78), were detected in the same region. This study determined QTL affecting fatty acid composition and melting point of different fat tissues in purebred Duroc pigs. © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.


Uemoto Y.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Nakano H.,Tohoku University | Kikuchi T.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Sato S.,National Livestock Breeding Center | And 5 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2012

The stearoyl-CoA desaturase (delta-9-desaturase; SCD) gene is a candidate gene for fatty acid composition. It is located on pig SSC14 in a region where quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fatty acid composition were previously detected in a Duroc purebred population. The objective of the present study was to fine map the QTL, to identify polymorphisms of the pig SCD gene and to examine the effects of SCD polymorphisms on fatty acid composition and melting point of fat in the population. The pigs were examined for fatty acid composition and melting point of inner and outer subcutaneous fat and inter- and intramuscular fat; the number of pigs examined was 479-521. Two SNPs (g.-353C>T and g.-233T>C) were identified in the promoter region of the SCD gene and were completely linked in the pigs from the base generation. In all pigs, 19 microsatellite markers and SCD haplotypes were then genotyped. Different statistical models were applied to evaluate the effects of QTL and the possible causality of the SCD gene variants with respect to the QTL. The results show that all significant QTL for C14:0, C18:0, C18:1 and melting point of fat were detected in the same region, located near the SCD gene. The results also show a significant association between SCD haplotypes and fatty acid composition and fat melting point in this population. These results indicate that the haplotype of the SCD gene has a strong effect on fatty acid composition and melting point of fat. © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.


Soma Y.,Tohoku University | Soma Y.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Uemoto Y.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Sato S.,National Livestock Breeding Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

Most QTL detection studies in pigs have been carried out in experimental F 2 populations. However, segregation of a QTL must be confirmed within a purebred population for successful implementation of marker-assisted selection. Previously, QTL for meat quality and carcass traits were detected on SSC 7 in a Duroc purebred population. The objectives of the present study were to carry out a whole-genome QTL analysis (except for SSC 7) for meat production, meat quality, and carcass traits and to confirm the presence of segregating QTL in a Duroc purebred population. One thousand and four Duroc pigs were studied from base to seventh generation; the pigs comprised 1 closed population of a complex multigenerational pedigree such that all individuals were related. The pigs were evaluated for 6 growth traits, 7 body size traits, 8 carcass traits, 2 physiological traits, and 11 meat quality traits, and the number of pigs with phenotypes ranged from 421 to 953. A total of 119 markers were genotyped and then used for QTL analysis. We utilized a pedigreebased, multipoint variance components approach to test for linkage between QTL and the phenotypic values using a maximum likelihood method; the logarithm of odds score and QTL genotypic heritability were estimated. A total of 42 QTL with suggestive linkages and 3 QTL with significant linkages for 26 traits were detected. These included selection traits such as daily BW gain, backfat thickness, loin eye muscle area, and intramuscular fat content as well as correlated traits such as body size and meat quality traits. The present study disclosed QTL affecting growth, body size, and carcass, physiological, and meat quality traits in a Duroc purebred population. © American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Miyagi Prefecture Animal Industry Experiment Station
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2011

The object of this study is to specify features determining meat quality of Berkshire and Duroc and influence of these purebreds on meat quality of crossbred pigs. In total, 37 purebred pigs (Berkshire and Duroc: originating from line breeding in Kagoshima Prefecture and Miyagi Prefecture, respectively) and two crossbreeds (LDB and LDD: produced by crossing Berkshire and Duroc boars to Duroc-Landrace sows) were used. Berkshire accumulated more subcutaneous and abdominal fat and had small loin eye muscle area, but accumulated less intramuscular fat than Duroc. There were no differences in meat colour and tenderness between the two purebreds. But Berkshire was less than Duroc in drip loss. As for fatty acid of inner and outer subcutaneous fat, Berkshire contained significantly higher concentration of saturated fatty acids, but had lower concentration of unsaturated fatty acid than Duroc. As a result, the melting point of inner and outer subcutaneous fat and perirenal fat of Berkshire was significantly higher than that of Duroc. Furthermore, though there was no breed difference in concentration of saturated fatty acids of intramuscular fat, Duroc had more oleic acid (C18:1) than Berkshire. Fatty acid concentrations of inner and outer subcutaneous fat and intramuscular fat as well as melting points of both subcutaneous fat layers and perirenal fat were the same in Berkshire and LDB and in Duroc and LDD. These results suggest that there were remarkable differences between Berkshire and Duroc in fat quality traits; also, both breeds as terminal sires influenced crossbred pigs fat accumulation and fat quality traits.


PubMed | Tohoku University, Miyagi Prefecture Animal Industry Experiment Station and Miyagi University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2016

Mycoplasma pneumonia of swine (MPS) lung lesions and immunogenic properties were compared between a Landrace line that was genetically selected for reduced incidence of pulmonary MPS lesions, and a non-selected Landrace line. The MPS-selected Landrace line showed significantly lower degrees of pulmonary MPS lesions compared with the non-selected Landrace line. When changes in immunity before and after vaccination were compared, the percentage of B cells in the peripheral blood of the MPS-selected Landrace line was significantly lower than that of the non-selected line. Furthermore, the concentration of growth hormone and the mitogen activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the MPS-selected Landrace line showed significantly (P<0.05) lower increases after vaccination than the non-selected line. Conversely, the concentration of peripheral blood interferon (IFN)- and salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) after Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination was significantly higher in the MPS-selected Landrace line than in the non-selected line. Gene expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 was significantly higher in the MPS-selected Landrace line in immune tissues, with the exception of the hilar lymph nodes. The present results suggest that peripheral blood IFN-, salivary IgA TLR2, and TLR4 are important immunological factors influencing the development of MPS lesions.


PubMed | Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science, Tohoku University and Miyagi Prefecture Animal Industry Experiment Station
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2016

Mycoplasma pneumonia of swine (MPS) is responsible for significant economic losses in the swine industry. We selected Landrace pigs for reduced MPS pulmonary lesions over five generations, and measured concentrations of the following cytokines: interleukin (IL)-10, IL-13, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- and interferon (IFN)- to estimate their correlation with MPS lesions. Sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were injected twice intramuscularly at 70 and 95 kg body weight. Blood serum samples were collected after 1 week of secondary SRBC inoculation and cytokine concentrations were analyzed by ELISA. Genetic parameters and breeding values were estimated. The heritability estimates of IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, TNF- and IFN- were 0.20 0.06, 0.12 0.06, 0.27 0.07, 0.20 0.10 and 0.05 0.03, respectively. Genetic correlations of IL-17 and TNF- with pulmonary MPS lesions were high (-0.86 0.13 and 0.69 0.29, respectively) and those of IFN- and IL-13 with MPS lesions were moderately negative (-0.45). Through selection, the breeding values of IL-17 and IFN- increased substantially and those of TNF- decreased. These results suggest that innate and cellular immunity are more important for the suppression of pulmonary lesions in MPS than humoral-mediated immunity, such as antibody response.


PubMed | Tohoku University, Miyagi Prefecture Animal Industry Experiment Station and Miyagi University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2016

Immunogenic properties and mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) lung lesions were compared between the immunity-selected Large White line and the non-selected Large White line. The selected Large White line showed a higher level of pulmonary MPS lesions compared with the non-selected Large White line. Subsequent to vaccination, the percentage of natural killer cells and T cells (CD3(+) CD4(+) CD8(-) and CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(+) T cells) were significantly increased in the non-selected line but remained unchanged in the immunity-selected Large White line. Secretion of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine-specific immunoblogulin G and phagocyte activity in peripheral blood were significantly higher in the immunity-selected Large White line than in the non-selected line. Expression of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6 messenger RNA in hilar lymph nodes was significantly lower in the immunity-selected Large White line than in the non-selected line. However, expression of IL-10 in all immune tissues was significantly higher in the immunity-selected Large White line. These results suggest that the selection for high immunity was not effective in increasing resistance to MPS lung lesions.


PubMed | Tohoku University, Miyagi Prefecture Animal Industry Experiment Station and Miyagi University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2016

To understand the influence of crossbreeding on Mycoplasma pneumonia of swine (MPS) resistance and immune characteristics, two crossbred lines were characterized. One crossbred line, LaWa, was generated by crossing the MPS pulmonary lesion selected Landrace line (La) and the highly immune-selected Large White line (Wa). The second crossbred line, LaWb, was generated by crossing the La line and the nonselected Large White line (Wb). The crossbred LbWb line (nonselected Landrace linenonselected Large White line) and the La line were used as controls. The LaWa and LaWb lines had an intermediate level of MPS lung lesions between La and LbWb lines, although the difference was not statistically significant. After stimulation with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), the LaWb and LaWa lines showed immune characteristics similar to that of the La line; the number of monocytes in peripheral blood increased, while B cells, T cells, secretion of SRBC-specific immunoglobulin G, and interleukin (IL)-13 decreased. Additionally, the number of natural killer (NK) cells and the expression of IL-4 and IL-17 were significantly higher in the LaWb and LaWa lines, respectively. These data suggested that crossbreeding of La and Wa lines resulted in the inheritance of some of the selected immune responses.

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