Cook C.J.,United Kingdom Sports Council |
Kilduff L.P.,University of Swansea |
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2014
Purpose: To examine the effects of moderate-load exercise with and without blood-flow restriction (BFR) on strength, power, and repeated-sprint ability, along with acute and chronic salivary hormonal parameters. Methods: Twenty male semiprofessional rugby union athletes were randomized to a lower-body BFR intervention (an occlusion cuff inflated to 180 mmHg worn intermittently on the proximal thighs) or a control intervention that trained without occlusion in a crossover design. Experimental sessions were performed 3 times a week for 3 wk with 5 sets of 5 repetitions of bench press, leg squat, and pull-ups performed at 70% of 1-repetition maximum. Results: Greater improvements were observed (occlusion training vs control) in bench press (5.4 ± 2.6 vs 3.3 ± 1.4 kg), squat (7.8 ± 2.1 vs 4.3 ± 1.4 kg), maximum sprint time (-0.03 ± 0.03 vs -0.01 ± 0.02 s), and leg power (168 ± 105 vs 68 ± 50 W). Greater exercise-induced salivary testosterone (ES 0.84-0.61) and cortisol responses (ES 0.65-0.20) were observed after the occlusion intervention sessions compared with the nonoccluded controls; however, the acute cortisol increases were attenuated across the training block. Conclusions: Occlusion training can potentially improve the rate of strength-training gains and fatigue resistance in trained athletes, possibly allowing greater gains from lower loading that could be of benefit during high training loads, in competitive seasons, or in a rehabilitative setting. The clear improvement in bench-press strength resulting from lower-body occlusion suggests a systemic effect of BFR training. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: ERC-AG | Phase: ERC-AG-LS2 | Award Amount: 2.50M | Year: 2014
All organisms have to cope with changing temperature and various mechanisms have evolved to protect cellular processes against thermal stresses. Many organisms also use temperature signals to align behaviour and development with certain seasons. How specific temperature cues are extracted from fluctuating temperature levels is unknown but it implies the existence of mechanisms that enable long-term monitoring and integration of the enormously variable temperature levels found in nature. We therefore intend to discover how variable temperature levels are measured and integrated over long timescales in order to provide information used in biological timing. Plants provide an excellent system in which to investigate such thermo-sensory mechanisms. We will exploit our knowledge of the multiple regulatory pathways determining quantitative expression of the plant developmental repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). These pathways, which are all independently influenced by temperature, converge to regulate FLC via aspects of a co-transcriptional mechanism involving antisense transcripts and different chromatin pathways. This understanding provides the system to define the primary temperature steps (thermo-sensors) that directly regulate FLC and explore how they combine to record complex temperature profiles. Our hypothesis is that different thermo-sensors monitor distinct aspects of the long-term temperature profile. Their outputs would be integrated via accumulation of chromatin modifications at FLC with feedback and interconnection between the pathways providing reinforcement systems to record previous exposure. Modulation of this mechanism would then provide the basis for adaptation to different climates. Knowledge emerging from this study will provide important concepts in understanding how organisms interact with their environment.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2 | Award Amount: 2.04M | Year: 2010
Mass production is shifted towards the countries with lower factor cost. European industry must search for a chance in customized and hi-tech products, trying to take advantage of its supremacy regarding new technologies development. Aerospace industry, automotive industry, medical implants, hi-end equipments industry, consumer products, protection and safety are the target sectors which include more than a million of European enterprises in real need of customized product. Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) -also known as Free Form Fabrication and formerly Rapid Manufacturing-, is a novel fabrication method of parts directly from the electronic model by layer manufacturing, using active principles such as laser and Electron beams. Currently, ALM is the first and the best option for short series of customized products. However, layered manufacturing is not without challenges. Part properties, dimensional accuracy and surface quality depend strongly on process planning, and sometimes prevent ALM parts to be considered as fully functional. The objective of KARMA is to respond to above mentioned challenges with a knowledge-based engineering system (KBE) that can estimate functional properties of ALM parts automatically and in short time. The KBE system would define the optimal production parameters automatically and execute a virtual test of the fabricated part. The KBE system will include a database with characterized material and part properties for all major ALM technologies. The development of such a KBE system is a difficult and demanding task, which will involve both ALM users and companies from the final customer sectors. A combination of mass production metal IAGs (FEMEVAL) and ALM IAGs (ASERM, AFPR and RAPIMAN) set up the proposal as a cohesion factor between material providers, technology providers, part fabricants and end-users to promote ALM knowledge among all of them.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.3.2 | Award Amount: 3.99M | Year: 2008
In the PriMeBits project, a printable electric low-voltage non-volatile memory is developed for printed sensor, media and wireless ID applications. The main strategy is to utilize printed technology where it has a competitive advantage compared to silicon technology. The project builds on basic research of new materials and components and takes the results into prototyping of new applications. To reduce the research risk, two different technologies for the memory functionality are considered with partially overlapping application areas.\n\nCurrent printable polymer-based memory technologies typically suffer from i) the needed operating voltage being high, ii) too short lifetime in room atmosphere, iii) poor temperature stability, iv) chemically reactive materials needing encapsulation and/or v) time-consuming temperature-annealing steps in fabrication. Consequently, for many commercially attractive passive and battery-powered applications, the properties of current printable memories are unsuited. To overcome the shortcomings of prior-art approaches, printable inorganic metal-oxide-nanoparticle-based ferroelectric FRAM memory and a resistive metallic-based write-once-read-many (WORM) memory will be developed. To print the ferroelectric memory, new printing inks based on, for example, barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles will be developed. For the WORM memory, the project will aim at utilizing commercial metal-nanoparticle inks with possibly some customization. Depending on the application, a printed circuitry or an external device is used for the reading and writing of the memory.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SEC-2011.4.2-4 | Award Amount: 1.07M | Year: 2012
Public Empowerment Policies for Crisis Management The aim of the project Public Empowerment Policies for crisis management (PEP) is to investigate how the crisis response abilities of the public can be enhanced and to clarify what public empowerment policies are successful in realising these objectives. A general goal of crisis management is prevention and reduction of harm or damage. This is supported by the communication goals set for citizens: empowerment to act, social understanding of risks and increased cooperation. The role of communities in crisis response can be enhanced, while human technology can support preparedness training and the issuing of instructions in crisis situations. The primary goal of the (Coordination and Support) project is to bring together expertise to construct a Road Map showing promising areas and directions for future research and implementation. Various studies will bring new insights, using mixed research methods, to identify what public empowerment policies are strong enablers of public resilience. By investigating best practices in educating citizens and working with communities, taking their point of view into account, potential key enablers for public empowerment will be identified and analysed. The project will implement studies that address current gaps in the research. To identify the key enablers for public resilience, a broad overview of best practices in how authorities currently enhance public response abilities will be delivered. In addition the project will clarify how authorities can successfully involve social groups and communities in crisis preparedness and response. Promising developments in the use of social network online tools and mobile devices will be identified within a human technology approach, taking preferences and public acceptance into account. In order to enhance the crisis response abilities of the public, communication policies, including technology in building self-efficacy among the public,