Cook C.J.,United Kingdom Sports Council |
Kilduff L.P.,University of Swansea |
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2014
Purpose: To examine the effects of moderate-load exercise with and without blood-flow restriction (BFR) on strength, power, and repeated-sprint ability, along with acute and chronic salivary hormonal parameters. Methods: Twenty male semiprofessional rugby union athletes were randomized to a lower-body BFR intervention (an occlusion cuff inflated to 180 mmHg worn intermittently on the proximal thighs) or a control intervention that trained without occlusion in a crossover design. Experimental sessions were performed 3 times a week for 3 wk with 5 sets of 5 repetitions of bench press, leg squat, and pull-ups performed at 70% of 1-repetition maximum. Results: Greater improvements were observed (occlusion training vs control) in bench press (5.4 ± 2.6 vs 3.3 ± 1.4 kg), squat (7.8 ± 2.1 vs 4.3 ± 1.4 kg), maximum sprint time (-0.03 ± 0.03 vs -0.01 ± 0.02 s), and leg power (168 ± 105 vs 68 ± 50 W). Greater exercise-induced salivary testosterone (ES 0.84-0.61) and cortisol responses (ES 0.65-0.20) were observed after the occlusion intervention sessions compared with the nonoccluded controls; however, the acute cortisol increases were attenuated across the training block. Conclusions: Occlusion training can potentially improve the rate of strength-training gains and fatigue resistance in trained athletes, possibly allowing greater gains from lower loading that could be of benefit during high training loads, in competitive seasons, or in a rehabilitative setting. The clear improvement in bench-press strength resulting from lower-body occlusion suggests a systemic effect of BFR training. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-3-2015 | Award Amount: 19.94M | Year: 2015
The science of materials has always been at the centre of scientific and technological progress in human development. The tools to understand materials that fashion them to meet our societal needs have been just as important. Thermal neutrons are one of the most powerful probes that look directly at the structure and dynamics of materials from the macro- to the microscopic scale and from nano-seconds to seconds. It is therefore natural that a group of 17 European Partner Countries have joined together to construct the worlds most powerful neutron source, the European Spallation Source (ESS). The importance of ESS has been recognised by ESFRI who have prioritised it as one of three Research Infrastructures (RIs) for this INFRADEV-3 call. However, simply constructing the most powerful spallation neutron source will not, by itself, ensure the maximum scientific or technological impact. What is needed is an integrated program that ensures that key challenges are met in order to build an ESS that can deliver high impact scientific and technological knowledge. With a timeline of 36 months, involving 18 Consortium Partners and a budget of 19.941.964, the BrightnESS proposal will ensure that (A) the extensive knowledge and skills of European companies, and institutes, are best deployed in the form of In-Kind Contributions to ESS for its construction and operation, (B) that technology transfer both to, and from, the ESS to European institutions and companies is optimised and, (C) that the maximum technical performance is obtained from the ESS target, moderators and detectors in order to deliver world class science and insights for materials technology and innovation.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SEC-2010.4.2-2 | Award Amount: 11.69M | Year: 2011
The objective of PRACTICE project is to improve the preparedness and resilience of the EU member states and associated countries to an attack from a terrorist group using non conventional weapons such as CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and/or Nuclear agents) materials. The existing situation is characterized by a fragmented structure as regards technology, procedures, methods and organization on national level as well as EU-level. The project will be based on the development of a new toolbox focusing on 1) identification, organization and establishment of knowledge of critical elements in the event structure thorough studies of a wide selection of scenarios, real incidents and exercises and 2) analysis and identification of gaps in the current response situation and organization and integration of the allocated response capabilities or functions in a toolbox of equipment, procedures and methods and 3) an allocated system or kit for public information, decision-support, first-responder training and exercises. These response capabilities functions are to a great extent universal in character and independent of national organizational structures. The concept and developed system will therefore provide EU and member states with a flexible and integrated system for coordinated response to CBRN terrorist attack, which is easier to adapt to various national organizations and regulations. Particular attention will be given to integration and understanding of human factors and societal aspects in all the parts of the project. The final concept and integrated response system (toolbox) and subsystems will be tested and validated. A whole system demonstrator will be shown and tested in the final phases of the project.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FCT-14-2014 | Award Amount: 4.26M | Year: 2015
Community policing promotes the implementation of bi-directional collaboration channels between citizens and Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs). By enhancing the discovery of relevant and up to date information, it speeds up the detection of risks, eases their prevention and builds a continuum of collaboration which motivates citizens and LEAs to work together. Over 36 months, TRILLION - TRusted, CItizen - LEA coILaboratIon over sOcial Networks - delivers a fully-fledged platform to support the extensive collaboration between citizens and LEAs. The operational environment of the platform is not limited to an on-going crisis, but also extends to the period before it through early identification and prevention of emerging risks. Major challenges addressed by TRILLION include creating the necessary trust to entice provision of information, ensuring that the information leads to realistic and credible knowledge and using this knowledge through secure bi-directional communications to guide actions of individuals closest to an identified risky situation. TRILLION delivers a comprehensive service based platform and mobile applications that support the knowledge-based, real-time collaboration among law enforcement agents, first responders and citizens whilst ensuring that privacy and data protection are taken into account. The TRILLION consortium and supporting organisations include 6 citizen communities, 6 law enforcement stakeholders, 3 industrial players and 5 universities and research centres. Extensive trials take place through pilots, early validations and serious game based training across Italy, Portugal, Sweden, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, involving close to 2.000 citizens and law enforcement agencies representatives.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.3.3-1 | Award Amount: 3.36M | Year: 2011
The need to deal with health inequalities is now on the agenda of key supranational institutions, such as the European Commission (EC). To tackle the so-called causes of the causes of health inequity, the focus should be put on structural policies, policies that especially in the current times of financial and employment crisis influence patterns of social stratification, living and working conditions, and thus peoples health. The SOPHIE project aims to generate new evidence on the impact and effectiveness of structural policies in reducing health inequalities, and to develop innovative methodologies for the evaluation of these policies in Europe. We will study major policy areas, including macro-economy, welfare state, labour market and employment relations, built environment, housing, as well as gender-oriented and immigration-related policies. Examples of these policies at the European, national and local levels will be examined, in addition to their impacts on health inequalities by social class, gender and migrant status. The project will develop theoretical frameworks as well as quantitative and qualitative methods for evaluating the effectiveness of such policies in different contexts. Novel methods that are useful for evaluating the impact of complex social interventions will be employed, including realist reviews, explanatory case studies and concept mapping. Particular attention will be given to increasing the involvement of affected stakeholders (civil society and deprived population groups) in the identification, design and evaluation of policies to tackle health inequalities. Affected communities and stakeholders will work with responsible policymakers in activities of dissemination of results, knowledge transfer and translation of findings into policy recommendations. Through SOPHIE, the EC will gain knowledge on the impact on health and health inequalities of social and economic policies which may be implemented or recommended to Member States
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2 | Award Amount: 2.04M | Year: 2010
Mass production is shifted towards the countries with lower factor cost. European industry must search for a chance in customized and hi-tech products, trying to take advantage of its supremacy regarding new technologies development. Aerospace industry, automotive industry, medical implants, hi-end equipments industry, consumer products, protection and safety are the target sectors which include more than a million of European enterprises in real need of customized product. Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) -also known as Free Form Fabrication and formerly Rapid Manufacturing-, is a novel fabrication method of parts directly from the electronic model by layer manufacturing, using active principles such as laser and Electron beams. Currently, ALM is the first and the best option for short series of customized products. However, layered manufacturing is not without challenges. Part properties, dimensional accuracy and surface quality depend strongly on process planning, and sometimes prevent ALM parts to be considered as fully functional. The objective of KARMA is to respond to above mentioned challenges with a knowledge-based engineering system (KBE) that can estimate functional properties of ALM parts automatically and in short time. The KBE system would define the optimal production parameters automatically and execute a virtual test of the fabricated part. The KBE system will include a database with characterized material and part properties for all major ALM technologies. The development of such a KBE system is a difficult and demanding task, which will involve both ALM users and companies from the final customer sectors. A combination of mass production metal IAGs (FEMEVAL) and ALM IAGs (ASERM, AFPR and RAPIMAN) set up the proposal as a cohesion factor between material providers, technology providers, part fabricants and end-users to promote ALM knowledge among all of them.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SEC-2011.4.2-4 | Award Amount: 1.07M | Year: 2012
Public Empowerment Policies for Crisis Management The aim of the project Public Empowerment Policies for crisis management (PEP) is to investigate how the crisis response abilities of the public can be enhanced and to clarify what public empowerment policies are successful in realising these objectives. A general goal of crisis management is prevention and reduction of harm or damage. This is supported by the communication goals set for citizens: empowerment to act, social understanding of risks and increased cooperation. The role of communities in crisis response can be enhanced, while human technology can support preparedness training and the issuing of instructions in crisis situations. The primary goal of the (Coordination and Support) project is to bring together expertise to construct a Road Map showing promising areas and directions for future research and implementation. Various studies will bring new insights, using mixed research methods, to identify what public empowerment policies are strong enablers of public resilience. By investigating best practices in educating citizens and working with communities, taking their point of view into account, potential key enablers for public empowerment will be identified and analysed. The project will implement studies that address current gaps in the research. To identify the key enablers for public resilience, a broad overview of best practices in how authorities currently enhance public response abilities will be delivered. In addition the project will clarify how authorities can successfully involve social groups and communities in crisis preparedness and response. Promising developments in the use of social network online tools and mobile devices will be identified within a human technology approach, taking preferences and public acceptance into account. In order to enhance the crisis response abilities of the public, communication policies, including technology in building self-efficacy among the public,
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.3.2 | Award Amount: 3.99M | Year: 2008
In the PriMeBits project, a printable electric low-voltage non-volatile memory is developed for printed sensor, media and wireless ID applications. The main strategy is to utilize printed technology where it has a competitive advantage compared to silicon technology. The project builds on basic research of new materials and components and takes the results into prototyping of new applications. To reduce the research risk, two different technologies for the memory functionality are considered with partially overlapping application areas.\n\nCurrent printable polymer-based memory technologies typically suffer from i) the needed operating voltage being high, ii) too short lifetime in room atmosphere, iii) poor temperature stability, iv) chemically reactive materials needing encapsulation and/or v) time-consuming temperature-annealing steps in fabrication. Consequently, for many commercially attractive passive and battery-powered applications, the properties of current printable memories are unsuited. To overcome the shortcomings of prior-art approaches, printable inorganic metal-oxide-nanoparticle-based ferroelectric FRAM memory and a resistive metallic-based write-once-read-many (WORM) memory will be developed. To print the ferroelectric memory, new printing inks based on, for example, barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles will be developed. For the WORM memory, the project will aim at utilizing commercial metal-nanoparticle inks with possibly some customization. Depending on the application, a printed circuitry or an external device is used for the reading and writing of the memory.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.80M | Year: 2015
Current displays fall far short of truly recreating visual reality. This can never be achieved by painting an image on a flat surface such as a TV screen, but requires a full-parallax display which can recreate the complete lightfield, i.e. the light traveling in every direction through every point in space. Recent years have seen major developments towards this goal, promising a new generation of ultra-realistic displays with applications in medicine, informatics, manufacturing, entertainment, gaming and more. However, achieving this will require a new generation of researchers trained both in the relevant physics, and in the biology of human vision. The European Training Network on Full-Parallax Imaging (ETN-FPI) aims at developing this new generation. The research concept of the network is to depart from the notations of plenoptics, light field and integral imaging, used sometimes interchangeably, and to harmonize and advance further the research in these areas under the umbrella of the wider and viewer-centred FPI concept. Fifteen early-stage researchers will be employed on novel inter-disciplinary FPI projects. The training disciplines include theoretical and applied optics, multi-dimensional image processing, and visual neuroscience. The targeted applications range from plenoptic microscopy to interaction with visual content generated by wide field-of-view displays. Extensive studies on perception of continuous parallax and subjective tests on various displays are planned. The training program includes local training, online seminars, workshops, training schools and a conference. The researchers trained within the network are expected to gather competitive skills and become highly competent in bringing innovations to the field of ultra-realistic and interactive visual media. This will enhance their employability in a rapidly growing sector in academia and industry and position Europe as a leader in this emerging multidisciplinary field.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: ERC-AG | Phase: ERC-AG-LS2 | Award Amount: 2.50M | Year: 2014
All organisms have to cope with changing temperature and various mechanisms have evolved to protect cellular processes against thermal stresses. Many organisms also use temperature signals to align behaviour and development with certain seasons. How specific temperature cues are extracted from fluctuating temperature levels is unknown but it implies the existence of mechanisms that enable long-term monitoring and integration of the enormously variable temperature levels found in nature. We therefore intend to discover how variable temperature levels are measured and integrated over long timescales in order to provide information used in biological timing. Plants provide an excellent system in which to investigate such thermo-sensory mechanisms. We will exploit our knowledge of the multiple regulatory pathways determining quantitative expression of the plant developmental repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). These pathways, which are all independently influenced by temperature, converge to regulate FLC via aspects of a co-transcriptional mechanism involving antisense transcripts and different chromatin pathways. This understanding provides the system to define the primary temperature steps (thermo-sensors) that directly regulate FLC and explore how they combine to record complex temperature profiles. Our hypothesis is that different thermo-sensors monitor distinct aspects of the long-term temperature profile. Their outputs would be integrated via accumulation of chromatin modifications at FLC with feedback and interconnection between the pathways providing reinforcement systems to record previous exposure. Modulation of this mechanism would then provide the basis for adaptation to different climates. Knowledge emerging from this study will provide important concepts in understanding how organisms interact with their environment.