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Hochard A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bettayeb K.,Rockefeller University | Gloulou O.,University of Paris Descartes | Fant X.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2013

Increased production of amyloid-β (Aβ)42 peptide, derived from the amyloid-β protein precursor, and its subsequent aggregation into oligomers and plaques constitutes a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We here report on a family of low molecular weight molecules, the Aftins (Amyloid-β Forty-Two Inducers), which, in cultured cells, dramatically affect the production of extracellular/secreted amyloid peptides. Aftins trigger β-secretase inhibitor and γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) sensitive, robust upregulation of Aβ42, and parallel down-regulation of Aβ38, while Aβ40 levels remain stable. In contrast, intracellular levels of these amyloids appear to remain stable. In terms of their effects on Aβ38/ Aβ40/Aβ42 relative abundance, Aftins act opposite to γ-secretase modulators (GSMs). Aβ42 upregulation induced by Aftin-5 is unlikely to originate from reduced proteolytic degradation or diminished autophagy. Aftin-5 has little effects on mitochondrial functional parameters (swelling, transmembrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, oxygen consumption) but reversibly alters the ultrastructure of mitochondria. Aftins thus alter the Aβ levels in a fashion similar to that described in the brain of AD patients. Aftins therefore constitute new pharmacological tools to investigate this essential aspect of AD, in cell cultures, allowing (1) the detection of inhibitors of Aftin induced action (potential 'anti-AD compounds', including GSIs and GSMs) but also (2) the identification, in the human chemical exposome, of compounds that, like Aftins, might trigger sustained Aβ42 production and Aβ38 down-regulation (potential 'pro-AD compounds'). © 2013 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Buron N.,THERAPTOSIS S.A. | Buron N.,MITOLOGICS S.A.S. | Porceddu M.,THERAPTOSIS S.A. | Porceddu M.,MITOLOGICS S.A.S. | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Current limitations of chemotherapy include toxicity on healthy tissues and multidrug resistance of malignant cells. A number of recent anti-cancer strategies aim at targeting the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery to induce tumor cell death. In this study, we set up protocols to purify functional mitochondria from various human cell lines to analyze the effect of peptidic and xenobiotic compounds described to harbour either Bcl-2 inhibition properties or toxic effects related to mitochondria. Mitochondrial inner and outer membrane permeabilization were systematically investigated in cancer cell mitochondria versus non-cancerous mitochondria. The truncated (t-) Bid protein, synthetic BH3 peptides from Bim and Bak, and the small molecule ABT-737 induced a tumor-specific and OMP-restricted mitochondrio-toxicity, while compounds like HA-14.1, YC-137, Chelerythrine, Gossypol, TW-37 or EM20-25 did not. We found that ABT-737 can induce the Bax-dependent release of apoptotic proteins (cytochrome c, Smac/Diablo and Omi/HtrA2 but not AIF) from various but not all cancer cell mitochondria. Furthermore, ABT-737 addition to isolated cancer cell mitochondria induced oligomerization of Bax and/or Bak monomers already inserted in the mitochondrial membrane. Finally immunoprecipatations indicated that ABT-737 induces Bax, Bak and Bim desequestration from Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL but not from Mcl-1L. This study investigates for the first time the mechanism of action of ABT-737 as a single agent on isolated cancer cell mitochondria. Hence, this method based on MOMP (mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization) is an interesting screening tool, tailored for identifying Bcl-2 antagonists with selective toxicity profile against cancer cell mitochondria but devoid of toxicity against healthy mitochondria. Copyright: © 2010 Buron et al.


Lecoeur H.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Borgne-Sanchez A.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Borgne-Sanchez A.,Theraptosis S.A. | Borgne-Sanchez A.,Mitologics S.A.S. | And 26 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2012

The Trans-activator protein (Tat) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a pleiotropic protein involved in different aspects of AIDS pathogenesis. As a number of viral proteins Tat is suspected to disturb mitochondrial function. We prepared pure synthetic full-length Tat by native chemical ligation (NCL), and Tat peptides, to evaluate their direct effects on isolated mitochondria. Submicromolar doses of synthetic Tat cause a rapid dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨ m) as well as cytochrome c release in mitochondria isolated from mouse liver, heart, and brain. Accordingly, Tat decreases substrate oxidation by mitochondria isolated from these tissues, with oxygen uptake being initially restored by adding cytochrome c. The anionchannel inhibitor 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2, 2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS) protects isolated mitochondria against Tat-induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), whereas ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor blocker, does not. Pharmacologic inhibitors of the permeability transition pore, Bax/Bak inhibitors, and recombinant Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins do not reduce Tat-induced MMP. We finally observed that Tat inhibits cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in disrupted mitochondria isolated from liver, heart, and brain of both mouse and human samples, making it the first described viral protein to be a potential COX inhibitor. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


PubMed | Saint - Joseph University, University of Rennes 1 and Mitologics SAS
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Toxicology and applied pharmacology | Year: 2014

Drinking water can be contaminated with pharmaceuticals. However, it is uncertain whether this contamination can be harmful for the liver, especially during obesity. Hence, the goal of our study was to determine whether chronic exposure to low doses of pharmaceuticals could have deleterious effects on livers of lean and obese mice. To this end, lean and ob/ob male mice were treated for 4 months with a mixture of 11 drugs provided in drinking water at concentrations ranging from 10 to 10 ng/l. At the end of the treatment, some liver and plasma abnormalities were observed in ob/ob mice treated with the cocktail containing 10 ng/l of each drug. For this dosage, a gene expression analysis by microarray showed altered expression of circadian genes (e.g. Bmal1, Dbp, Cry1) in lean and obese mice. RT-qPCR analyses carried out in all groups of animals confirmed that expression of 8 different circadian genes was modified in a dose-dependent manner. For some genes, a significant modification was observed for dosages as low as 10-10 ng/l. Drug mixture and obesity presented an additive effect on circadian gene expression. These data were validated in an independent study performed in female mice. Thus, our study showed that chronic exposure to trace pharmaceuticals disturbed hepatic expression of circadian genes, particularly in obese mice. Because some of the 11 drugs can be found in drinking water at such concentrations (e.g. acetaminophen, carbamazepine, ibuprofen) our data could be relevant in environmental toxicology, especially for obese individuals exposed to these contaminants.


Begriche K.,Scripps Research Institute | Massart J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Robin M.-A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Borgne-Sanchez A.,Mitologics SAS | Fromenty B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2011

Numerous investigations have shown that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major mechanism of drug-induced liver injury, which involves the parent drug or a reactive metabolite generated through cytochromes P450. Depending of their nature and their severity, the mitochondrial alterations are able to induce mild to fulminant hepatic cytolysis and steatosis (lipid accumulation), which can have different clinical and pathological features. Microvesicular steatosis, a potentially severe liver lesion usually associated with liver failure and profound hypoglycemia, is due to a major inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Macrovacuolar steatosis, a relatively benign liver lesion in the short term, can be induced not only by a moderate reduction of mitochondrial FAO but also by an increased hepatic de novo lipid synthesis and a decreased secretion of VLDL-associated triglycerides. Moreover, recent investigations suggest that some drugs could favor lipid deposition in the liver through primary alterations of white adipose tissue (WAT) homeostasis. If the treatment is not interrupted, steatosis can evolve toward steatohepatitis, which is characterized not only by lipid accumulation but also by necroinflammation and fibrosis. Although the mechanisms involved in this aggravation are not fully characterized, it appears that overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the damaged mitochondria could play a salient role. Numerous factors could favor drug-induced mitochondrial and metabolic toxicity, such as the structure of the parent molecule, genetic predispositions (in particular those involving mitochondrial enzymes), alcohol intoxication, hepatitis virus C infection, and obesity. In obese and diabetic patients, some drugs may induce acute liver injury more frequently while others may worsen the pre-existent steatosis (or steatohepatitis). © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | MITOLOGICS SAS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology | Year: 2012

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in humans is difficult to predict using classical in vitro cytotoxicity screening and regulatory animal studies. This explains why numerous compounds are stopped during clinical trials or withdrawn from the market due to hepatotoxicity. Thus, it is important to improve early prediction of DILI in human. In this study, we hypothesized that this goal could be achieved by investigating drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction as this toxic effect is a major mechanism of DILI. To this end, we developed a high-throughput screening platform using isolated mouse liver mitochondria. Our broad spectrum multiparametric assay was designed to detect the global mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (swelling), inner membrane permeabilization (transmembrane potential), outer membrane permeabilization (cytochrome c release), and alteration of mitochondrial respiration driven by succinate or malate/glutamate. A pool of 124 chemicals (mainly drugs) was selected, including 87 with documented DILI and 37 without reported clinical hepatotoxicity. Our screening assay revealed an excellent sensitivity for clinical outcome of DILI (94 or 92% depending on cutoff) and a high positive predictive value (89 or 82%). A highly significant relationship between drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity and DILI occurrence in patients was calculated (p < 0.001). Moreover, this multiparametric assay allowed identifying several compounds for which mitochondrial toxicity had never been described before and even helped to clarify mechanisms with some drugs already known to be mitochondriotoxic. Investigation of drug-induced loss of mitochondrial integrity and function with this multiparametric assay should be considered for integration into basic screening processes at early stage to select drug candidates with lower risk of DILI in human. This assay is also a valuable tool for assessing the mitochondrial toxicity profile and investigating the mechanism of action of new compounds and marketed compounds.

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