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San Diego, CA, United States

Dugan L.L.,University of California at San Diego | You Y.-H.,University of California at San Diego | Ali S.S.,University of California at San Diego | Diamond-Stanic M.,University of California at San Diego | And 18 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation

Diabetic microvascular complications have been considered to be mediated by a glucose-driven increase in mitochondrial superoxide anion production. Here, we report that superoxide production was reduced in the kidneys of a steptozotocin-induced mouse model of type 1 diabetes, as assessed by in vivo real-time transcutaneous fluorescence, confocal microscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance analysis. Reduction of mitochondrial biogenesis and phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were observed in kidneys from diabetic mice. These observations were consistent with an overall reduction of mitochondrial glucose oxidation. Activity of AMPK, the major energy-sensing enzyme, was reduced in kidneys from both diabetic mice and humans. Mitochondrial biogenesis, PDH activity, and mitochondrial complex activity were rescued by treatment with the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D- ribofuranoside (AICAR). AICAR treatment induced superoxide production and was linked with glomerular matrix and albuminuria reduction in the diabetic kidney. Furthermore, diabetic heterozygous superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2+/-) mice had no evidence of increased renal disease, and Ampka2-/- mice had increased albuminuria that was not reduced with AICAR treatment. Reduction of mitochondrial superoxide production with rotenone was sufficient to reduce AMPK phosphorylation in mouse kidneys. Taken together, these results demonstrate that diabetic kidneys have reduced superoxide and mitochondrial biogenesis and activation of AMPK enhances superoxide production and mitochondrial function while reducing disease activity. Source

Nguyen K.V.,Mitochondrial and Metabolic Disease Center | Nguyen K.V.,University of California at San Diego | Naviaux R.K.,Mitochondrial and Metabolic Disease Center | Naviaux R.K.,University of California at San Diego | And 3 more authors.
Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

Inherited mutations of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) give rise to Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) or variants (LNV). We report molecular insights from real-time RT-PCR for HPRT mRNA quantification into the mechanism by which a single mutation located in exon 7 of the HPRT gene: c.500G>T, p.R167M, led to different clinical phenotypes from three male LNV-affected patients in the same family manifesting parallel differences in enzymatic activities. This approach can be applied for understanding genotype-phenotype correlations for other human genetic diseases. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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