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Wang K.-L.,National Yang Ming University | Wang K.-L.,National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences | Hsia S.-M.,Taipei Medical University | Yeh J.-Y.,Mithra Biotechnology Inc | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Endocrine sensitivity, assessed by the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), has long been the predict factor to guide therapeutic decisions. Tamoxifen has been the most successful hormonal treatment in endocrine-sensitive breast cancer. However, in estrogen-insensitive cancer tamoxifen showed less effectiveness than in estrogen-sensitive cancer. It is interesting to develop new drugs against both hormone-sensitive and insensitive tumor. In this present study we examined anticancer effects of evodiamine extracted from the Chinese herb, Evodiae fructus, in estrogen-dependent and -independent human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. Evodiamine inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner with concentration of 1×10-6 and 1×10-5 M. Evodiamine also induced apoptosis via up-regulation of caspase 7 activation, PARP cleavage (Bik and Bax expression). The expression of ER α and β in protein and mRNA levels was down-regulated by evodiamine according to data from immunoblotting and RT-PCR analysis. Overall, our results indicate that evodiamine mediates degradation of ER and induces caspase-dependent pathway leading to inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cell lines. It suggests that evodiamine may in part mediate through ER-inhibitory pathway to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation. © 2013 Wang et al.


Sung W.-C.,National Health Research Institute | Chang C.-W.,National Taiwan Normal University | Huang S.-Y.,Mithra Biotechnology Inc. | Wei T.-Y.,National Taiwan Normal University | And 4 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics | Year: 2016

Disulfide linkages play an important role in protein stability and activity. Thus, it is critical to characterize disulfide bonds to ensure the quality and function of protein pharmaceuticals. There are, however, problems associated with maintaining disulfide linkages in the conventional procedures that are used to digest a protein. In order to preserve enzyme activity during the digestion of a protein, it is commonly carried out at neutral to basic environment which increases the possibilities of disulfide bond scrambling. However, it is not easy to differentiate whether the scrambled disulfide linkages are initiated by the sample itself or whether they are induced during the protease digestion process. In this study, the optimum pH for minimizing disulfide bond rearrangements during the digestion process was determined. Three sets of proteases, trypsin plus Glu-C, Lys-C and thermolysin were used, followed by dimethyl labeling and mass spectrometry for a bevacizumab (Avastin) disulfide linkage analysis. No disulfide linkage scrambling was detected at pH 6 when Lys-C or trypsin plus Glu-C were used as enzymes. When thermolysin was applied, some scrambled disulfide bonds were identified at pH 5, 6 and 7. Nevertheless, there was less disulfide bond scrambling at a lower pH. All correct disulfide bonds on bevacizumab could be identified using this approach. The results demonstrated that by choosing the proper enzymes, using a lower pH environment for the digestion could reduce the degree of artifact disulfide scrambling. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | National Health Research Institute, Mithra Biotechnology Inc., National Taiwan Normal University and Fu Jen Catholic University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochimica et biophysica acta | Year: 2016

Disulfide linkages play an important role in protein stability and activity. Thus, it is critical to characterize disulfide bonds to ensure the quality and function of protein pharmaceuticals. There are, however, problems associated with maintaining disulfide linkages in the conventional procedures that are used to digest a protein. In order to preserve enzyme activity during the digestion of a protein, it is commonly carried out at neutral to basic environment which increases the possibilities of disulfide bond scrambling. However, it is not easy to differentiate whether the scrambled disulfide linkages are initiated by the sample itself or whether they are induced during the protease digestion process. In this study, the optimum pH for minimizing disulfide bond rearrangements during the digestion process was determined. Three sets of proteases, trypsin plus Glu-C, Lys-C and thermolysin were used, followed by dimethyl labeling and mass spectrometry for a bevacizumab (Avastin) disulfide linkage analysis. No disulfide linkage scrambling was detected at pH6 when Lys-C or trypsin plus Glu-C were used as enzymes. When thermolysin was applied, some scrambled disulfide bonds were identified at pH5, 6 and 7. Nevertheless, there was less disulfide bond scrambling at a lower pH. All correct disulfide bonds on bevacizumab could be identified using this approach. The results demonstrated that by choosing the proper enzymes, using a lower pH environment for the digestion could reduce the degree of artifact disulfide scrambling.


Huang H.-W.,National Tsing Hua University | Huang H.-W.,National Health Research Institute | Liu B.-S.,National Tsing Hua University | Liu B.-S.,National Health Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2015

Recent progress in snake venomics has shed much light on the intra-species variation among the toxins from different geographical regions and has provided important information for better snakebite management. Most previous reports on snake venomics were based on venoms pooled from different snakes. In this study, we present the proteomic and glycomic profiles of venoms from individual Naja atra snakes. The results reveal wide dynamic range of three-finger toxins. Systematic classification based on cardiotoxin (CTX-) profiles of A2/A4 and A6, respectively, allowed the identification of two putative subspecies of Taiwan cobra from the eastern and western regions. We also identified four major N-glycan moieties on cobra snake venom metalloproteinase on the bi-antennary glycan core. ELISA showed that these glycoproteins (<. 3%) could elicit much higher antibody response in antiserum when compared to other high-abundance cobra venom toxins such as small molecular weight CTXs (~60%). By removing these high-molecular weight glycoproteins from the immunogen, we demonstrated better protection than that achieved with conventional crude venom immunization in mice challenged by crude venom. We conclude that both intra-species and inter-individual variations of proteomic and glycomic profiles of snake venomics should be considered to provide better antivenomic approach for snakebite management. Biological significance: Based on the proteomic and glycomic profiles of venoms obtained from individual snakes, we demonstrated a surprisingly wide dynamic range and geographical variation of three-finger toxins in cobra venomics. This provides a reasonable explanation for the variable neutralization effects of antivenom treatment on victims suffering from cobra snakebite and suggests a simple and economic method to produce potent antivenom with better efficacy. Since two major venomic profiles with distinct dynamic ranges were observed for Taiwan cobra venoms isolated from the eastern and western regions, the current venomic profile should be used as a quality control for future production of antivenom in clinical applications. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Huang S.Y.,Mithra Biotechnology Inc. | Chen S.F.,National Taiwan Normal University | Chen C.H.,National Taiwan Normal University | Huang H.W.,National Health Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2014

Snake venom consists of toxin proteins with multiple disulfide linkages to generate unique structures and biological functions. Determination of these cysteine connections usually requires the purification of each protein followed by structural analysis. In this study, dimethyl labeling coupled with LC-MS/MS and RADAR algorithm was developed to identify the disulfide bonds in crude snake venom. Without any protein separation, the disulfide linkages of several cytotoxins and PLA2 could be solved, including more than 20 disulfide bonds. The results show that this method is capable of analyzing protein mixture. In addition, the approach was also used to compare native cytotoxin 3 (CTX III) and its scrambled isomer, another category of protein mixture, for unknown disulfide bonds. Two disulfide-linked peptides were observed in the native CTX III, and 10 in its scrambled form, X-CTX III. This is the first study that reports a platform for the global cysteine connection analysis on a protein mixture. The proposed method is simple and automatic, offering an efficient tool for structural and functional studies of venom proteins. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Huang S.-Y.,Mithra Biotechnology Inc. | Hsieh Y.-T.,National Taiwan Normal University | Chen C.-H.,National Taiwan Normal University | Chen C.-C.,Mithra Biotechnology Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

An automatic method for disulfide bond assignment using dimethyl labeling and computational screening of a1 ions with customized software, RADAR, is developed. By utilization of the enhanced a1 ions generated from labeled peptides, the N-terminal amino acids from disulfide-linked peptides can be determined. In this study, we applied this method for structural characterization of recombinant monoclonal antibodies, an important group of therapeutic proteins. In addition to a1 ion screening and molecular weight match, new RADAR is capable of confirming the matched peptide pairs by further comparing the collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragment ions. With the N-terminal amino acid identities as a threshold, the identification of disulfide-linked peptide pairs can be achieved rapidly at a higher confidence level. Unlike most current approaches, prior knowledge of disulfide linkages or a high-end mass spectrometer is not required, and tedious work or deliberate interpretation can be avoided in this study. Our approach makes it possible to analyze unknown disulfide bonds of protein pharmaceuticals as well as their degraded forms without further protein separation. It can be used as a convenient quality examination tool during biopharmaceutical development and manufacturing processes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Tsai P.L.,Mithra Biotechnology Inc. | Tsai P.L.,National Taiwan Normal University | Chen S.-F.,National Taiwan Normal University | Huang S.Y.,Mithra Biotechnology Inc.
Reviews in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

The formation of disulfide bonds is critical for stabilizing protein structures and maintaining protein functions. It is important to understand the linkages between multiple cysteine residues within a protein. In this review, the analytical approaches using mass spectrometry (MS) for disulfide linkage assignment are classified and discussed. Enzymatic digestion under appropriate conditions followed by various MS detection strategies remains the primary method for cysteine linkage analysis. In-source decay (ISD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) have been used to generate significant peptide signals that indicate the identities of peptides involved in disulfide bonds. In addition, chemical labeling and software algorithms were also developed to facilitate the automation of disulfide bond analysis. For proteins with complex disulfide structure, methods involving partial reduction coupled with differential alkylation were demonstrated to be useful. In the past two decades, MS has become one of the most valuable tools for protein disulfide bond analysis. It provides irreplaceable information including the peptide backbone sequences as well as the cysteine connection pattern when coupling with appropriate sample preparations. The related approaches with their unique features can be applied for different aims such as structural characterization or functional studies of proteins. © 2013 Walter de Gruyter GmbH.


PubMed | Mithra Biotechnology Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Analytical chemistry | Year: 2014

Snake venom consists of toxin proteins with multiple disulfide linkages to generate unique structures and biological functions. Determination of these cysteine connections usually requires the purification of each protein followed by structural analysis. In this study, dimethyl labeling coupled with LC-MS/MS and RADAR algorithm was developed to identify the disulfide bonds in crude snake venom. Without any protein separation, the disulfide linkages of several cytotoxins and PLA2 could be solved, including more than 20 disulfide bonds. The results show that this method is capable of analyzing protein mixture. In addition, the approach was also used to compare native cytotoxin 3 (CTX III) and its scrambled isomer, another category of protein mixture, for unknown disulfide bonds. Two disulfide-linked peptides were observed in the native CTX III, and 10 in its scrambled form, X-CTX III. This is the first study that reports a platform for the global cysteine connection analysis on a protein mixture. The proposed method is simple and automatic, offering an efficient tool for structural and functional studies of venom proteins.


PubMed | Mithra Biotechnology Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Analytical chemistry | Year: 2012

An automatic method for disulfide bond assignment using dimethyl labeling and computational screening of a(1) ions with customized software, RADAR, is developed. By utilization of the enhanced a(1) ions generated from labeled peptides, the N-terminal amino acids from disulfide-linked peptides can be determined. In this study, we applied this method for structural characterization of recombinant monoclonal antibodies, an important group of therapeutic proteins. In addition to a(1) ion screening and molecular weight match, new RADAR is capable of confirming the matched peptide pairs by further comparing the collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragment ions. With the N-terminal amino acid identities as a threshold, the identification of disulfide-linked peptide pairs can be achieved rapidly at a higher confidence level. Unlike most current approaches, prior knowledge of disulfide linkages or a high-end mass spectrometer is not required, and tedious work or deliberate interpretation can be avoided in this study. Our approach makes it possible to analyze unknown disulfide bonds of protein pharmaceuticals as well as their degraded forms without further protein separation. It can be used as a convenient quality examination tool during biopharmaceutical development and manufacturing processes.

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