Vlachou M.,Mitera General |
Dimitriadis D.,Mitera General
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research | Year: 2010
Background: Overactivity of anterior and/or posterior tibial tendon may be a causative factor of spastic varus foot deformity. The prevalence of their dysfunction has been reported with not well defined results. Although gait analysis and dynamic electromyography provide useful information for the assessment of the patients, they are not available in every hospital. The purpose of the current study is to identify the causative muscle producing the deformity and apply the most suitable technique for its correction.Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 48 consecutive ambulant patients (52 feet) with spastic paralysis due to cerebral palsy. The average age at the time of the operation was 12,4 yrs (9-18) and the mean follow-up 7,8 yrs (4-14). Eigtheen feet presented equinus hind foot deformity due to gastrocnemius and soleus shortening. According to the deformity, the feet were divided in two groups (Group I with forefoot and midfoot inversion and Group II with hindfoot varus). The deformities were flexible in all cases in both groups. Split anterior tibial tendon transfer (SPLATT) was performed in Group I (11 feet), while split posterior tibial tendon transfer (SPOTT) was performed in Group II (38 feet). In 3 feet both procedures were performed. Achilles tendon sliding lengthening (Hoke procedure) was done in 18 feet either preoperatively or concomitantly with the index procedure.Results: The results in Group I, were rated according to Hoffer's clinical criteria as excellent in 8 feet and satisfactory in 3, while in Group II according to Kling's clinical criteria were rated as excellent in 20 feet, good in 14 and poor in 4. The feet with poor results presented residual varus deformity due to intraoperative technical errors.Conclusion: Overactivity of the anterior tibial tendon produces inversion most prominent in the forefoot and midfoot and similarly overactivity of the posterior tibial tendon produces hindfoot varus. The deformity can be clinically unidentifiable in some cases when Achilles shortening co-exists producing foot equinus. By identifying the muscle causing the deformity and performing the appropriate technique, very satisfying results were achieved in the majority of our cases. In three feet both muscles contributed to a combined deformity and simultaneous SPLATT and SPOTT were considered necessary. For complex foot deformities where the component of cavus co-exists, supplementary procedures are required along with the index operation to obtain the best result. © 2010 Vlachou and Dimitriadis; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Hatzaki A.,Mitera General |
Sifakis S.,University of Crete |
Apostolopoulou D.,Mitera General |
Bouzarelou D.,Mitera General |
And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2011
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3) related skeletal dysplasias are caused by mutations in the FGFR3 gene that result in increased activation of the receptors causing alterations in the process of endochondral ossification in all long bones, and include achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia, and SADDAN. Reports of prenatal diagnosis of FGFR3 related skeletal dysplasias are not rare; however, the correlation between 2nd trimester ultrasonographic findings and underlying molecular defect in these cases is relatively poor. There is a need for specific ultrasound (U/S) predictors than can distinguish lethal from non-lethal cases and aid an earlier prenatal diagnosis. Here we present one familial and 16 sporadic cases with FGFR3 related skeletal dysplasia, and we evaluate biometric parameters and U/S findings consistent with the diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia. U/S scan performed even at the 18th week of gestation can indicate a decreased rate of development of the femora (femur length (FL) <5th centile), while the mean gestational age at diagnosis is still around the 26th week. The utility of other biometric parameters and ratios is discussed (foot length, BPD, HC, FL/foot, and FL/AC). Prenatal cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses were performed. A final diagnosis was reached by molecular analysis. In two cases of discontinued pregnancy, fetal autopsy led to a phenotypic diagnosis and confirmed the prenatal prediction of lethality. We conclude that the combination of U/S and molecular genetic approach is helpful for establishing an accurate diagnosis of FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasias in utero and subsequently for appropriate genetic counselling and perinatal management. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.