Mississippi, Mississippi, United States
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Zhai W.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Schilling M.W.,Nutrition and Health Promotion Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Jackson V.,Nutrition and Health Promotion Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Peebles E.D.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Mercier Y.,Adisseo France S.A.S. Commentry
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2016

In a previous companion study, we found that broiler growth performance and meat yield were improved by the feeding of increased levels of dietary lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met). In the current study, dietary Lys and Met supplementation were evaluated for their effect on the breast (pectoralis major) meat quality of male Ross × Ross 708 broilers. A completely randomized block design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was applied (10 blocks and 8 treatments/block). The diets, including 2 Lys levels (1.013 and 1.216%) and 4 Met levels (0.304, 0.380, 0.456, and 0.532%), were fed from 21 to 42 d of age in the form of pellets, and broilers were processed at 42 d of age. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA using the MIXED procedures of SAS 9.2. Lysine supplementation yielded breast meat with increased sarcoplasmic protein (soluble protein) solubility (P = 0.007) and pH (less protein denaturation; P < 0.0001), and decreased cooking loss (higher cooking yield; P = 0.0009), shear force (increased tenderness; P = 0.035), and lightness (associated with higher muscle pH and cooking yield; P < 0.0001). Dietary Lys and Met interacted to affect cooking loss, in that breast meat from birds fed the highest Lys and Met levels showed the lowest cooking loss (P = 0.02). In addition, overall consumer acceptability was slightly higher for the breast meat of birds belonging to the Lys (1.216%) and Met (0.532%) treatment group when compared to those in the 1.013% Lys and 0.380% Met treatment. In conclusion, supplemental dietary Lys and Met increased growth rate and meat yield without having any adverse effects on the meat quality parameters tested. Furthermore, the supplementation of diets with Lys and Met slightly improved some meat quality parameters. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Nouranian S.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Gwaltney S.R.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Baskes M.I.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Tschopp M.A.,U.S. Army | Horstemeyer M.F.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2015

Molecular simulations were performed to study the energetics and geometries of bond rupture in single alkane molecules using three reactive hydrocarbon potentials: (1) modified embedded-atom method (MEAM) for saturated hydrocarbons, (2) ReaxFF, and (3) second-generation REBO. The total energy/force versus strain, strain at fracture, and strain energy release were compared for a homologous series of normal alkanes (ethane to undecane) with generalization to polyethylene. The CC bond distances and CCC bond angles were quantified, and a fragment analysis was performed. Overall, the MEAM and ReaxFF potentials are in reasonable agreement with first-principles data with MEAM matching DFT-calculated lowest energy fragments. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zhai W.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Peebles E.D.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Wang X.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Gerard P.D.,Clemson University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2016

A previous study has shown that a limited increase of lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) in broiler diets may improve feed conversion ratio (FCR), BW, carcass yield, and breast meat yield. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary Lys and Met supplementation on various blood serum metabolites and hormones, and their relationship with growth performance and the meat yield of male Ross × Ross 708 broilers. Experimental diets, including 2 Lys levels (100 and 120% of recommended levels) and 4 Met levels (80, 100, 120, and 140% of recommended levels), were fed from 21 to 42 d of age. Blood serum metabolites were not affected by any of the dietary treatments. Uric acid concentration was negatively correlated with absolute weights of the whole body, carcass, pectoralis minor, wing, leg quarter, and front half parts. Cholesterol was negatively correlated with pectoralis major, wing, pectoralis major+minor, and front half. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF1) and testosterone concentrations were found to be positively related to BW. In addition, positive correlations occurred between concentrations of total protein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; uric acid and total cholesterol; and IGF1 and testosterone. In conclusion, dietary amino acid supplementation did not affect the blood serum metabolites investigated, which may be due to the fact that these metabolites are highly regulated in the blood. However, because the expression of genes for these metabolites may be unique to individual birds, growth and the deposition of specific muscles among birds can be quite variable. Even though Lys and Met supplementation improved growth performance, and BW was positively related to circulating IGF1 and testosterone concentrations, these 2 hormones were not affected by dietary Met supplementation. The increase in growth rate caused by dietary Lys or Met supplementation may be due to changes in various integral metabolic pathways as a result of polygenic and pleiotropic relationships, rather than by the isolated effects of individual hormones and metabolites. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Oliveira T.F.B.,Federal University of Lavras | Bertechini A.G.,Federal University of Lavras | Bricka R.M.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Hester P.Y.,Purdue University | And 3 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2015

Effects of the in ovo injection of organic Mn, Zn, and Cu in association with post-hatch (POH) feed and water restriction on the performance and physical-chemical bone parameters of male Ross × Ross 708 broilers were examined. On 17 d of incubation, a total of 1,872 eggs were subjected to in ovo injection using a commercial multi-egg injector. Treatments (TRT) includingd non-injected and diluent-injected controls. The respective Zn, Mn, and Cu levels (mg/mL) added to the diluent of the low (LMD) and high mineral (HMD) TRT groups were 0.181, 0.087, and 0.010, and 0.544, 0.260, and 0.030, respectively. The 4 TRT groups were then sub-divided into 2 POH holding time (HT) groups, with 15 birds randomly allocated to each of 6 replicate pens in each of the 8 groups. The first HT group (0HT) had immediate access to water and feed, and the second HT group (24HT) contained birds that were kept in transport baskets for 24 h before being released. Performance was determined and selected birds were subsequently necropsied and their tibiae extracted for analysis. In comparison to birds from 24HT group, those in the 0HT group had a higher BW gain and feed intake, and a lower FCR through 21 d POH. The percentage of bone ash of the birds belonging to the HMD group was higher than all other TRT on d 1 POH and was higher than the non-injection control group on d 21 POH. On d 1, the LMD and HMD groups had higher tibial Mn concentrations than those of the control groups. On d 7, bones from the HMD group had a higher concentration of Mn than did the non-injected control group, and likewise, on d 21 POH, had a higher concentration of Zn than did the control groups. In conclusion, a 24HT negatively affected the performance of the birds during the first 2 wk POH; however, the LMD and HMD TRT had a positive influence on bone mineralization. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Yan Q.,Mississippi State University | Yu F.,Mississippi State University | Cai Z.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Zhang J.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2012

Biomass like wood chips, switchgrass and other plant residues are first converted to syngas through gasification process using air, oxygen or steam. A downdraft gasifier is performed for syngas production in Mississippi State. The syngas from the gasifier contains up to 49% (vol) N2. High-level nitrogen-containing (nitrogen can be up to 60%) synthesis gas is converted to liquid hydrocarbon mixture through a one-stage catalytic process with a Fe-Pd/ZSM-5 catalyst. The Fe-Pd/ZSM-5 catalyst shows relatively high activity and selectivity in producing liquid hydrocarbons when running with nitrogen-rich syngas. The CO conversion, hydrocarbon selectivity and hydrocarbon distribution as a function of temperature, pressure, GHSV, composition of the feed, and reaction time are examined. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Mercadante V.R.G.,University of North Florida | Kozicki L.E.,Pontifical Catholic University | Ciriaco F.M.,University of North Florida | Henry D.D.,University of North Florida | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of administering PGF2α at the initiation of the 7-d CO-Synch+controlled internal drug release (CIDR) fixed-timed AI (TAI) protocol on pregnancy rates of suckled beef cows and replacement heifers. Within location, cows were stratified by days postpartum (DPP), BCS, and parity (Exp. 1; n = 1,551) and heifers were stratified by BCS (Exp. 2; n = 999) and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) CO-Synch+CIDR (100-μg injection of GnRH at CIDR insertion [d-10] with a 25-mg injection of PGF2α at CIDR removal [d-3] followed by injection of GnRH and TAI on d 0) or 2) PG-COSynch+ CIDR (a 25-mg injection of PGF2α on d-10 of the CO-Synch+CIDR protocol). Follicle diameter and corpus luteum (CL) development were assessed on d-10 and-3, and pregnancy status was determined on d 30 to 35. Blood was collected on d-20,-10,-3, and 0 relative to TAI to determine concentrations of progesterone (P4). In Exp. 1, TAI pregnancy rates did not differ (P = 0.667) between treatments and were affected by BCS (P = 0.003) and DPP (P = 0.006). Concentrations of P4 were greater (P < 0.0001) on d-3 for CO-Synch+CIDR than for PG-CO-Synch+CIDR (4.1 ± 0.2 and 3.4 ± 0.2 ng/mL, respectively). Follicle diameter on d-3 differed (P = 0.05) between PG-COSynch+ CIDR (13.4 ± 0.3 mm) and CO-Synch+CIDR (12.5 ± 0.3 mm) treatments. Cows with P4 > 2.5 ng/ mL on d-10 had greater (P = 0.024) pregnancy rate to TAI (56.5%) compared with cows with 2.5 ng/mL < P4 > 1 (43.0%), whereas cows with P4 < 1 ng/mL were intermediate (51.6%). Cows with a CL on d-10 had greater (P = 0.012) pregnancy rates to TAI than cows without a CL (66.3 vs. 39.4%, respectively). In Exp. 2, TAI pregnancy rates did not differ (P = 0.316) between treatments. Concentrations of P4 differed (P < 0.0001) on d-3 with greater concentrations of P4 for CO-Synch+CIDR than for PG-CO-Synch+CIDR (3.75 ± 0.20 ng/mL and 3.60 ± 0.21 ng/mL, respectively). Follicle diameter was similar (P = 0.749) between treatments on d-10 and-3. Regardless of treatment, cyclic status tended (P = 0.062) to improve pregnancy rates to TAI (55 vs. 45%, for cycling and noncycling heifers, respectively). We concluded that addition of PGF2α to the 7-d CO-Synch+CIDR protocol decreased concentrations of P4 in cows and heifers and increased follicle diameter at CIDR removal in cows but failed to increase TAI pregnancy rates. © 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

Aboughanem-Sabanadzovic N.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Allen T.W.,Mississippi State University | Broome M.,Mississippi State University | Lawrence A.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | And 2 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2014

Virus-like symptoms were observed in several kudzu patches in Mississippi during a survey of viruses infecting soybean carried out in late summer/fall of 2013 as a part of a project funded by the Mississippi Soybean Promotion Board. Symptomatology consisted of chlorotic mottle and ringspots, vein-associated feathering, necrosis, and leaf deformation, which were often observed in combination on the same plant. In order to identify the virus(es) involved in the disease, young leaves from a symptomatic kudzu sample collected in Kemper County were crushed in 10 volumes of 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) and mechanically inoculated onto celite-dusted leaves of two soybean varieties (Asgrow AG4605 and AG4730), each represented by 10 plants. Sap from an asymptomatic kudzu sample from Oktibbeha County was used as a control. Both varieties reacted by systemic mottle, stunting, and apical leaf necrosis approximately 2 weeks after inoculation, while no symptoms could be observed in controls. Partially purified preparations from both symptomatic soybean cultivars exhibited the presence of putative intact and empty spherical virus particles ~30 nm in diameter. ELISA tests with antisera to several soybean viruses were performed on the original kudzu sample and inoculated AG4605 and AG4730 soybean plants. These tests revealed the presence of Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) in all symptomatic samples. In order to better understand the incidence of this virus in kudzu in Mississippi, a total of 127 samples from 28 counties were collected during October 2013 and tested using ELISA. A total of 11 samples collected in 8 different counties were positive for TRSV. To further confirm these results, one step RT-PCR test was performed on total nucleic extracts from all ELISA-positive and four negative kudzu samples using TRSV-specific primers (3). A specific PCR product of 766 bp was present in all ELISA-positive samples and positive controls, whereas no visible bands were present in negative samples. PCR products generated from samples, collected in Kemper, Tippah, and Jefferson Davis counties, were cloned and custom sequenced. Pair-wise comparisons indicated conserved nucleotide (95 to 98%) and amino acid (98 to 99%) contents among sequenced products. Kudzu isolates from Mississippi shared 91 to 96% and 98 to 99% conserved nucleotides and amino acids, with TRSV sequences currently available in the NCBI/GenBank database. This is the first report of TRSV infection of kudzu in Mississippi. The possible implications to the soybean industry are yet to be determined since kudzu occupies approximately 202,000 ha in Mississippi and TRSV has historically been reported associated with bud blight in soybean (1). Nonetheless, results of our study, along with the recent report from Louisiana (2), strongly suggest that kudzu, due to its widespread distribution in the region, may represent a major reservoir of TRSV in the southeastern United States. © The American Phytopathological Society.

Monroe A.P.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Chandler R.B.,University of Georgia | Burger L.W.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Martin J.A.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Martin J.A.,Savannah River Ecology Laboratory
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2016

Grasslands are among the most imperiled ecosystems in the world, and establishment of exotic forage grasses and management for uniform utilization may have contributed to population declines of many obligate grassland bird species in North America. Native warm-season grasses (NWSG) are increasingly promoted as viable alternatives to exotic forages currently in production such as bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) and tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus), but structure of native bunchgrasses also may offer nesting habitat for birds such as the dickcissel (Spiza americana). Establishing NWSG pastures may thereby create an opportunity for land-sharing, where agriculture incorporates biodiversity-friendly practices. We investigated dickcissel responses to NWSG and grazing at the Prairie Research Unit in Monroe Co., Mississippi (USA), where we established a gradient of management intensity among four treatments in small, operational-scale pastures (6.4–10.5 ha). Treatments included grazed exotic forages, two grazed NWSG treatments including Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans) monoculture and grazed mixed NWSG polyculture of Indian grass, little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), and a non-grazed NWSG polyculture treatment. We applied a multi-state capture-recapture model in a Bayesian framework to estimate dickcissel nest density and productivity while accounting for nest stage-specific variation in survival and detection. Nest density and productivity were consistently greater in non-grazed NWSG than grazed exotic pasture, whereas productivity in grazed NWSG treatments was intermediate but declined between years. We also found that variation in survival and density did not always correspond with estimated productivity, and thus solely relying on either parameter may be misleading when making inferences on habitat quality. These results suggest a positive response to NWSG among dickcissels in this system, but grazing may reduce nest site abundance, and consequently productivity. Native warm-season forages may be a viable land-sharing alternative by increasing productivity of tall structure specialists such as dickcissels compared with exotic grass pastures currently in production, but grazing should be managed to ensure abundance of tall vegetation structure for nest sites. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Thomas M.D.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Williams C.C.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2014

Search targets are typically remembered much better than other objects even when they are viewed for less time. However, targets have two advantages that other objects in search displays do not have: They are identified categorically before the search, and finding them represents the goal of the search task. The current research investigated the contributions of both of these types of information to the long-term visual memory representations of search targets. Participants completed either a predefined search or a unique-object search in which targets were not defined with specific categorical labels before searching. Subsequent memory results indicated that search target memory was better than distractor memory even following ambiguously defined searches and when the distractors were viewed significantly longer. Superior target memory appears to result from a qualitatively different representation from those of distractor objects, indicating that decision processes influence visual memory. © 2014, © 2014 The Experimental Psychology Society.

Zhai W.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Peebles E.D.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Schilling M.W.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Mercier Y.,CERN
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2016

The effects of dietary lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) supplementation on the growth performance and meat yield of male Ross × Ross 708 broilers were determined. A completely randomized block design with 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was applied. The diets, including 2 Lys levels [100 and 120% of NRC recommended levels (RL)] and 4 Met levels (80, 100, 120, and 140% of RL), were fed from 21 to 42 d of age. A 100% Lys and 100% Met RL diet corresponded respectively to 1.01% and 0.38% calculated levels in the diet. When the broilers were fed Lys at 100% RL, feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lowest when diets contained Met at 120% RL. However, when broilers were fed Lys at 120% RL, FCR was linearly reduced as the inclusion of dietary Met increased. Similarly, BW on d 41 increased and then plateaued when Lys was maintained at 100% RL and as dietary Met increased. However, BW increased linearly as Met level increased and while Lys was maintained at 120% RL. Relative pectoralis major, wing, and front half (pectoralis major, minor, and wings) to carcass yields were increased as dietary Met increased. However, relative leg to carcass yield was decreased by an increase in Met supplementation. Although the cost of the 80% RL Met in the diets was lowest at either Lys level, the amount necessary to produce 1 kg of live body or carcass weight cost the most. Similarly, the use of supplementary Met lowered the ratio of feed cost:cut-up part yield. In conclusion, the improvement in meat yield in response to Met supplementation was mainly due to improvements in relative front half yield rather than in leg yields. In addition, although feed with higher amino acid levels is more expensive, the realized improvements in growth performance and meat yield in response to supplemental Lys and Met in the diets of male broilers from d 21 to 41 made their use cost effective. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

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