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Jackson, Mississippi, United States

Oliveira T.F.B.,Federal University of Lavras | Bertechini A.G.,Federal University of Lavras | Bricka R.M.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Hester P.Y.,Purdue University | And 3 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2015

Effects of the in ovo injection of organic Mn, Zn, and Cu in association with post-hatch (POH) feed and water restriction on the performance and physical-chemical bone parameters of male Ross × Ross 708 broilers were examined. On 17 d of incubation, a total of 1,872 eggs were subjected to in ovo injection using a commercial multi-egg injector. Treatments (TRT) includingd non-injected and diluent-injected controls. The respective Zn, Mn, and Cu levels (mg/mL) added to the diluent of the low (LMD) and high mineral (HMD) TRT groups were 0.181, 0.087, and 0.010, and 0.544, 0.260, and 0.030, respectively. The 4 TRT groups were then sub-divided into 2 POH holding time (HT) groups, with 15 birds randomly allocated to each of 6 replicate pens in each of the 8 groups. The first HT group (0HT) had immediate access to water and feed, and the second HT group (24HT) contained birds that were kept in transport baskets for 24 h before being released. Performance was determined and selected birds were subsequently necropsied and their tibiae extracted for analysis. In comparison to birds from 24HT group, those in the 0HT group had a higher BW gain and feed intake, and a lower FCR through 21 d POH. The percentage of bone ash of the birds belonging to the HMD group was higher than all other TRT on d 1 POH and was higher than the non-injection control group on d 21 POH. On d 1, the LMD and HMD groups had higher tibial Mn concentrations than those of the control groups. On d 7, bones from the HMD group had a higher concentration of Mn than did the non-injected control group, and likewise, on d 21 POH, had a higher concentration of Zn than did the control groups. In conclusion, a 24HT negatively affected the performance of the birds during the first 2 wk POH; however, the LMD and HMD TRT had a positive influence on bone mineralization. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Yan Q.,Mississippi State University | Yu F.,Mississippi State University | Cai Z.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Zhang J.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2012

Biomass like wood chips, switchgrass and other plant residues are first converted to syngas through gasification process using air, oxygen or steam. A downdraft gasifier is performed for syngas production in Mississippi State. The syngas from the gasifier contains up to 49% (vol) N2. High-level nitrogen-containing (nitrogen can be up to 60%) synthesis gas is converted to liquid hydrocarbon mixture through a one-stage catalytic process with a Fe-Pd/ZSM-5 catalyst. The Fe-Pd/ZSM-5 catalyst shows relatively high activity and selectivity in producing liquid hydrocarbons when running with nitrogen-rich syngas. The CO conversion, hydrocarbon selectivity and hydrocarbon distribution as a function of temperature, pressure, GHSV, composition of the feed, and reaction time are examined. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zhai W.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Peebles E.D.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Wang X.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Gerard P.D.,Clemson University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2016

A previous study has shown that a limited increase of lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) in broiler diets may improve feed conversion ratio (FCR), BW, carcass yield, and breast meat yield. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary Lys and Met supplementation on various blood serum metabolites and hormones, and their relationship with growth performance and the meat yield of male Ross × Ross 708 broilers. Experimental diets, including 2 Lys levels (100 and 120% of recommended levels) and 4 Met levels (80, 100, 120, and 140% of recommended levels), were fed from 21 to 42 d of age. Blood serum metabolites were not affected by any of the dietary treatments. Uric acid concentration was negatively correlated with absolute weights of the whole body, carcass, pectoralis minor, wing, leg quarter, and front half parts. Cholesterol was negatively correlated with pectoralis major, wing, pectoralis major+minor, and front half. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF1) and testosterone concentrations were found to be positively related to BW. In addition, positive correlations occurred between concentrations of total protein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; uric acid and total cholesterol; and IGF1 and testosterone. In conclusion, dietary amino acid supplementation did not affect the blood serum metabolites investigated, which may be due to the fact that these metabolites are highly regulated in the blood. However, because the expression of genes for these metabolites may be unique to individual birds, growth and the deposition of specific muscles among birds can be quite variable. Even though Lys and Met supplementation improved growth performance, and BW was positively related to circulating IGF1 and testosterone concentrations, these 2 hormones were not affected by dietary Met supplementation. The increase in growth rate caused by dietary Lys or Met supplementation may be due to changes in various integral metabolic pathways as a result of polygenic and pleiotropic relationships, rather than by the isolated effects of individual hormones and metabolites. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Zhai W.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Peebles E.D.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Schilling M.W.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Mercier Y.,CERN
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2016

The effects of dietary lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) supplementation on the growth performance and meat yield of male Ross × Ross 708 broilers were determined. A completely randomized block design with 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was applied. The diets, including 2 Lys levels [100 and 120% of NRC recommended levels (RL)] and 4 Met levels (80, 100, 120, and 140% of RL), were fed from 21 to 42 d of age. A 100% Lys and 100% Met RL diet corresponded respectively to 1.01% and 0.38% calculated levels in the diet. When the broilers were fed Lys at 100% RL, feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lowest when diets contained Met at 120% RL. However, when broilers were fed Lys at 120% RL, FCR was linearly reduced as the inclusion of dietary Met increased. Similarly, BW on d 41 increased and then plateaued when Lys was maintained at 100% RL and as dietary Met increased. However, BW increased linearly as Met level increased and while Lys was maintained at 120% RL. Relative pectoralis major, wing, and front half (pectoralis major, minor, and wings) to carcass yields were increased as dietary Met increased. However, relative leg to carcass yield was decreased by an increase in Met supplementation. Although the cost of the 80% RL Met in the diets was lowest at either Lys level, the amount necessary to produce 1 kg of live body or carcass weight cost the most. Similarly, the use of supplementary Met lowered the ratio of feed cost:cut-up part yield. In conclusion, the improvement in meat yield in response to Met supplementation was mainly due to improvements in relative front half yield rather than in leg yields. In addition, although feed with higher amino acid levels is more expensive, the realized improvements in growth performance and meat yield in response to supplemental Lys and Met in the diets of male broilers from d 21 to 41 made their use cost effective. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Mercadante V.R.G.,University of North Florida | Kozicki L.E.,Pontifical Catholic University | Ciriaco F.M.,University of North Florida | Henry D.D.,University of North Florida | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of administering PGF2α at the initiation of the 7-d CO-Synch+controlled internal drug release (CIDR) fixed-timed AI (TAI) protocol on pregnancy rates of suckled beef cows and replacement heifers. Within location, cows were stratified by days postpartum (DPP), BCS, and parity (Exp. 1; n = 1,551) and heifers were stratified by BCS (Exp. 2; n = 999) and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) CO-Synch+CIDR (100-μg injection of GnRH at CIDR insertion [d-10] with a 25-mg injection of PGF2α at CIDR removal [d-3] followed by injection of GnRH and TAI on d 0) or 2) PG-COSynch+ CIDR (a 25-mg injection of PGF2α on d-10 of the CO-Synch+CIDR protocol). Follicle diameter and corpus luteum (CL) development were assessed on d-10 and-3, and pregnancy status was determined on d 30 to 35. Blood was collected on d-20,-10,-3, and 0 relative to TAI to determine concentrations of progesterone (P4). In Exp. 1, TAI pregnancy rates did not differ (P = 0.667) between treatments and were affected by BCS (P = 0.003) and DPP (P = 0.006). Concentrations of P4 were greater (P < 0.0001) on d-3 for CO-Synch+CIDR than for PG-CO-Synch+CIDR (4.1 ± 0.2 and 3.4 ± 0.2 ng/mL, respectively). Follicle diameter on d-3 differed (P = 0.05) between PG-COSynch+ CIDR (13.4 ± 0.3 mm) and CO-Synch+CIDR (12.5 ± 0.3 mm) treatments. Cows with P4 > 2.5 ng/ mL on d-10 had greater (P = 0.024) pregnancy rate to TAI (56.5%) compared with cows with 2.5 ng/mL < P4 > 1 (43.0%), whereas cows with P4 < 1 ng/mL were intermediate (51.6%). Cows with a CL on d-10 had greater (P = 0.012) pregnancy rates to TAI than cows without a CL (66.3 vs. 39.4%, respectively). In Exp. 2, TAI pregnancy rates did not differ (P = 0.316) between treatments. Concentrations of P4 differed (P < 0.0001) on d-3 with greater concentrations of P4 for CO-Synch+CIDR than for PG-CO-Synch+CIDR (3.75 ± 0.20 ng/mL and 3.60 ± 0.21 ng/mL, respectively). Follicle diameter was similar (P = 0.749) between treatments on d-10 and-3. Regardless of treatment, cyclic status tended (P = 0.062) to improve pregnancy rates to TAI (55 vs. 45%, for cycling and noncycling heifers, respectively). We concluded that addition of PGF2α to the 7-d CO-Synch+CIDR protocol decreased concentrations of P4 in cows and heifers and increased follicle diameter at CIDR removal in cows but failed to increase TAI pregnancy rates. © 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source

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