Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State

Mississippi, Mississippi, United States

Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State

Mississippi, Mississippi, United States
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Sharma R.,Jawaharlal Nehru University | Sarswat A.,Jawaharlal Nehru University | Pittman C.U.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Mohan D.,Jawaharlal Nehru University
RSC Advances | Year: 2017

Bauhinia purpurea (Kaniar) pods were dried, powdered, and utilized for cadmium and lead removal. Bauhinia purpurea (Kaniar) pod powders (KPP) were converted into magnetic Bauhinia purpurea (Kaniar) powders (MKPP) by co-precipitation. Iron(ii) sulfate and iron(iii) sulfate were used as iron precursors. The biosorbents were extensively characterized using zero point charge measurements (pHPZC), ultimate and proximate analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and FT-Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area (SBET) measurements, physical properties measurement system (PPMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques. The SBET of MKPP (52.0 m2 g-1) was higher than KPP (1.8 m2 g-1). Optimum Cd2+ and Pb2+ removal by KPP and MKPP was obtained at pH 5.0 and 4.5, respectively. Metal-ligand chelation, ion-exchange and hydrogen bonding were possible mechanisms for Cd2+ and Pb2+ removal. KPP and MKPP showed maximum Langmuir adsorption capacities of 11.1 and 4.8 mg g-1 for Cd2+ and 16.4 and 14.1 for Pb2+, respectively. Lead and cadmium kinetic data were best described using a pseudo-second-order equation. Cd2+ and Pb2+ removal was affected by the presence of Cu2+ during adsorption from a multicomponent aqueous environment. Cd2+ and Pb2+ remediation from actual groundwater was demonstrated. Fixed-bed studies for Pb2+ removal by KPP were also performed with a column capacity of 18.8 mg g-1 (column dia 2.0 cm; column length 40 cm; bed height 6.0 cm; pH 4.5; flow rate 5.0 mL min-1; Pb2+ conc. 10 mg L-1). Spent KPP was regenerated using 0.1 N HCl. Approximately 85% of total Pb2+ recovery was achieved using 100 mL 0.1 N HCl. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Setia A.,BITS | Sharma V.,BITS | Liu Y.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2017

Cauchy type singular integral equations with index zero naturally occur in the field of aerodynamics. Literature is very much developed for these equations and Chebyshevs polynomials are most frequently used to solve these integral equations. In this paper, a residual based Galerkins method has been proposed by using Legendre polynomial as basis functions to solve Cauchy singular integral equation of index zero. It converts the Cauchy singular integral equation into system of equations which can be easily solved. The test examples are given for illustration of proposed numerical method. Error bounds are derived as well as implemented in all the test examples. © 2017 Author(s).

Monroe A.P.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Burger L.W.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Boland H.T.,Mississippi State University | Martin J.A.,Savannah River Ecology Laboratory
Global Ecology and Conservation | Year: 2017

Intensive agriculture can have negative environmental consequences such as nonpoint source pollution and the simplification of biotic communities, and land sharing posits that conservation can be enhanced by integrating agricultural productivity and biodiversity on the same land. In the Southeastern United States, native warm-season grasses (NWSG) may be a land sharing alternative to exotic forages currently in production because of greater livestock gains with lower fertilizer inputs, and habitat for grassland birds. However, uncertainty regarding costs and risk poses an important barrier to incorporating NWSG in livestock operations. We evaluated the economic and conservation implications of NWSG conversion among small, operational-scale pastures (6.8–10.5 ha) during 2011–2012 at the Prairie Research Unit in Monroe Co., Mississippi (USA). We used partial budgets to compare the marginal rate of return (MRRe) from converting exotic grass pastures to either a NWSG monoculture of Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) or a NWSG mix of Indiangrass, little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii). We similarly compared changes in productivity of dickcissels (Spiza americana), a grassland bird specializing in tall structure. Average daily gain (ADG) of steers and revenue were consistently higher for NWSG treatments than exotic grass pasture, but ADG declined between years. Indiangrass pastures yielded consistently positive MRRe, indicating producers would receive 16–24% return on investment. Marginal rate of return was lower for mixed NWSG (−12 to 3%), driven by slightly lower livestock ADG and higher establishment costs than for Indiangrass. Sensitivity analyses indicated that MRRe also was influenced by cattle selling price. Conversely, mixed NWSG increased dickcissel productivity by a greater degree than Indiangrass per amount invested in NWSG conversion, suggesting a tradeoff between livestock and dickcissel production between the two NWSG treatments. Given continued increases in livestock prices, NWSG could be a sustainable land sharing alternative to exotic pastures currently in production, but subsidies and changes in management may be required for NWSG conversion to be viable for producers and to maintain conservation benefits. © 2017 The Authors

Anu V.,North Dakota State University | Walia G.,North Dakota State University | Hu W.,University of Alabama | Carver J.C.,University of Alabama | Bradshaw G.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State
Proceedings - International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering, ISSRE | Year: 2016

Software inspections are an effective method for early detection of faults present in software development artifacts (e.g., requirements and design documents). However, many faults are left undetected due to the lack of focus on the underlying sources of faults (i.e., what caused the injection of the fault?). To address this problem, research work done by Psychologists on analyzing the failures of human cognition (i.e., human errors) is being used in this research to help inspectors detect errors and corresponding faults (manifestations of errors) in requirements documents. We hypothesize that the fault detection performance will demonstrate significant gains when using a formal taxonomy of human errors (the underlying source of faults). This paper describes a newly developed Human Error Taxonomy (HET) and a formal Error-Abstraction and Inspection (EAI) process to improve fault detection performance of inspectors during the requirements inspection. A controlled empirical study evaluated the usefulness of HET and EAI compared to fault based inspection. The results verify our hypothesis and provide useful insights into commonly occurring human errors that contributed to requirement faults along with areas to further refine both the HET and the EAI process. © 2016 IEEE.

Lee J.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Thompson S.M.,Auburn University | Lacy T.E.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State
International Journal of Thermal Sciences | Year: 2017

An analytical solution for the steady-state temperature distribution in a transversely isotropic (TI) heat spreader is provided and validated using three-dimensional finite element (FE) analysis. The dimensionless maximum temperature and corresponding thermal spreading resistance were determined for various Biot numbers, dimensionless heat spreader thicknesses, source-to-spreader area ratios, and thermal conductivity ratios (ratio of out-of-plane to in-plane thermal conductivities). The heat spreader investigated consists of uniformly-distributed fibers/channels aligned in the heat spreader's thickness direction. Solutions are presented graphically for various geometric, material, and operating mode combinations. The analytical solutions differ by less than 1% from the FE solutions, indicating that the analytical solution, with cosine solution form, is both effective and accurate in predicting the thermal spreading resistance of a TI heat spreader for many parameter combinations. These results can aid the design or analysis of non-traditional media for thermal spreading, including polymer composites, metal matrix composites, nanocomposites, heat pipes and electronics packaging materials with uniformly-distributed thermal vias. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS

Tang Q.,Jiangsu University | Xie P.,Jiangsu University | Wang J.,Jiangsu University | Lin J.,Jiangsu University | And 3 more authors.
Tetrahedron | Year: 2017

Two cascade coupling reactions were developed between N-alkyl(aryl)-N-methacryloyl benzamides and readily available benzyl alcohols or sodium benzenesulfinates. Through a radical cyclization strategy, these one-pot sequential reactions provided two simple and efficient approaches to the synthesis of a variety of isoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-dione derivatives in high yields with a broad substrate scope. These compounds are valuable molecules in drug discovery. © 2017

Yan Q.,Mississippi State University | Yu F.,Mississippi State University | Cai Z.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Zhang J.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2012

Biomass like wood chips, switchgrass and other plant residues are first converted to syngas through gasification process using air, oxygen or steam. A downdraft gasifier is performed for syngas production in Mississippi State. The syngas from the gasifier contains up to 49% (vol) N2. High-level nitrogen-containing (nitrogen can be up to 60%) synthesis gas is converted to liquid hydrocarbon mixture through a one-stage catalytic process with a Fe-Pd/ZSM-5 catalyst. The Fe-Pd/ZSM-5 catalyst shows relatively high activity and selectivity in producing liquid hydrocarbons when running with nitrogen-rich syngas. The CO conversion, hydrocarbon selectivity and hydrocarbon distribution as a function of temperature, pressure, GHSV, composition of the feed, and reaction time are examined. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Monroe A.P.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Chandler R.B.,University of Georgia | Burger L.W.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Martin J.A.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Martin J.A.,Savannah River Ecology Laboratory
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2016

Grasslands are among the most imperiled ecosystems in the world, and establishment of exotic forage grasses and management for uniform utilization may have contributed to population declines of many obligate grassland bird species in North America. Native warm-season grasses (NWSG) are increasingly promoted as viable alternatives to exotic forages currently in production such as bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) and tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus), but structure of native bunchgrasses also may offer nesting habitat for birds such as the dickcissel (Spiza americana). Establishing NWSG pastures may thereby create an opportunity for land-sharing, where agriculture incorporates biodiversity-friendly practices. We investigated dickcissel responses to NWSG and grazing at the Prairie Research Unit in Monroe Co., Mississippi (USA), where we established a gradient of management intensity among four treatments in small, operational-scale pastures (6.4–10.5 ha). Treatments included grazed exotic forages, two grazed NWSG treatments including Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans) monoculture and grazed mixed NWSG polyculture of Indian grass, little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), and a non-grazed NWSG polyculture treatment. We applied a multi-state capture-recapture model in a Bayesian framework to estimate dickcissel nest density and productivity while accounting for nest stage-specific variation in survival and detection. Nest density and productivity were consistently greater in non-grazed NWSG than grazed exotic pasture, whereas productivity in grazed NWSG treatments was intermediate but declined between years. We also found that variation in survival and density did not always correspond with estimated productivity, and thus solely relying on either parameter may be misleading when making inferences on habitat quality. These results suggest a positive response to NWSG among dickcissels in this system, but grazing may reduce nest site abundance, and consequently productivity. Native warm-season forages may be a viable land-sharing alternative by increasing productivity of tall structure specialists such as dickcissels compared with exotic grass pastures currently in production, but grazing should be managed to ensure abundance of tall vegetation structure for nest sites. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Thomas M.D.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Williams C.C.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2014

Search targets are typically remembered much better than other objects even when they are viewed for less time. However, targets have two advantages that other objects in search displays do not have: They are identified categorically before the search, and finding them represents the goal of the search task. The current research investigated the contributions of both of these types of information to the long-term visual memory representations of search targets. Participants completed either a predefined search or a unique-object search in which targets were not defined with specific categorical labels before searching. Subsequent memory results indicated that search target memory was better than distractor memory even following ambiguously defined searches and when the distractors were viewed significantly longer. Superior target memory appears to result from a qualitatively different representation from those of distractor objects, indicating that decision processes influence visual memory. © 2014, © 2014 The Experimental Psychology Society.

Zhai W.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Peebles E.D.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Schilling M.W.,Mississippi State UniversityMississippi State | Mercier Y.,CERN
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2016

The effects of dietary lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) supplementation on the growth performance and meat yield of male Ross × Ross 708 broilers were determined. A completely randomized block design with 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was applied. The diets, including 2 Lys levels [100 and 120% of NRC recommended levels (RL)] and 4 Met levels (80, 100, 120, and 140% of RL), were fed from 21 to 42 d of age. A 100% Lys and 100% Met RL diet corresponded respectively to 1.01% and 0.38% calculated levels in the diet. When the broilers were fed Lys at 100% RL, feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lowest when diets contained Met at 120% RL. However, when broilers were fed Lys at 120% RL, FCR was linearly reduced as the inclusion of dietary Met increased. Similarly, BW on d 41 increased and then plateaued when Lys was maintained at 100% RL and as dietary Met increased. However, BW increased linearly as Met level increased and while Lys was maintained at 120% RL. Relative pectoralis major, wing, and front half (pectoralis major, minor, and wings) to carcass yields were increased as dietary Met increased. However, relative leg to carcass yield was decreased by an increase in Met supplementation. Although the cost of the 80% RL Met in the diets was lowest at either Lys level, the amount necessary to produce 1 kg of live body or carcass weight cost the most. Similarly, the use of supplementary Met lowered the ratio of feed cost:cut-up part yield. In conclusion, the improvement in meat yield in response to Met supplementation was mainly due to improvements in relative front half yield rather than in leg yields. In addition, although feed with higher amino acid levels is more expensive, the realized improvements in growth performance and meat yield in response to supplemental Lys and Met in the diets of male broilers from d 21 to 41 made their use cost effective. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

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