Helmy M.M.F.,MISR University for Science and Technology
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets | Year: 2010
Cyclosporiasis is a protracted, relapsing gastroenteritis and has a short recorded history. Cyclospora cayetanensis is an enigmatic parasite since its discovery highlights the need for isolation of cases of infection that could be part of widespread outbreaks. It is associated with diarrhoea among children in developing countries in the Americas, where C. cayetanensis is endemic; traveller's diarrhoea and/or food and waterborne outbreaks sometimes occur in the developed countries. In SubSaharan Africa and Egypt, cyclosporiasis has been reported to occur in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Zoonotic species of Cyclospora have also been identified worldwide in primates, indicating likely endemicity of this underreported disease. This can be attributed to the lack of awareness in the public and medical profession concerning the disease, which is, therefore, not routinely tested at the health centres. The correlation between the density of water contamination and the prevalence of cyclosporiasis among the individuals of each area is significant. No doubt, water is the main vehicle of transmission in the present community. Soil contact and poultry are significant risk factors. All literature on C. ayetanensis, cyclosporiasis worldwide, and endemic cyclosporiasis was searched from libraries, colleagues and internet. Although cyclosporiasis is considered an enigma worth unravelling, with many aspects of this disease and its transmission having been uncovered only recently, the situation has been rapidly changing since the disease first came to medical attention in the 1970s. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
Ahmed M.A.E.,MISR University for Science and Technology
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2015
The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine, a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10. mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100. mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8. successive. weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Azar A.T.,MISR University for Science and Technology
Neural Computing and Applications | Year: 2013
Measuring the blood urea nitrogen concentration is crucial to evaluate dialysis dose (Kt/V) in patients with renal failure. Although frequent measurement is needed to avoid inadequate dialysis efficiency, artificial intelligence can repeatedly perform the forecasting tasks and may be a satisfactory substitute for laboratory tests. Artificial neural networks represent a promising alternative to classical statistical and mathematical methods to solve multidimensional nonlinear problems. It also represents a promising forecasting application in nephrology. In this study, multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network with fast learning algorithms is used for the accurate prediction of the post-dialysis blood urea concentration. The capabilities of eight different learning algorithms are studied, and their performances are compared. These algorithms are Levenberg-Marquardt, resilient backpropagation, scaled conjugate gradient, conjugate gradient with Powell-Beale restarts, Polak-Ribiere conjugate gradient and Fletcher-Reeves conjugate gradient algorithms, BFGS quasi-Newton, and one-step secant. The results indicated that BFGS quasi-Newton and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm produced the best results. Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm outperformed clearly all the other algorithms in the verification phase and was a very robust algorithm in terms of mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), Pearson's correlation coefficient (Rp 2) and concordance coefficient (RC). The percentage of MAE and RMSE for Levenberg-Marquardt is 0.27 and 0.32 %, respectively, compared to 0.38 and 0.41 % for BFGS quasi-Newton and 0.44 and 0.48 % for resilient backpropagation. MLP-based systems can achieve satisfying results for predicting post-dialysis blood urea concentration and single-pool dialysis dose spKt/V without the need of a detailed description or formulation of the underlying process in contrast to most of the urea kinetic modeling techniques. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited.
Ahmed M.A.E.,MISR University for Science and Technology |
Ahmed H.I.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt |
El-Morsy E.M.,Helwan University
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2013
Diazinon is an organophosphorous pesticide with a prominent toxicity on many body organs. Multiple mechanisms contribute to diazinon-induced deleterious effects. Inhibition of acetyl-cholinesterase, cholinergic hyperstimulation, and formation of reactive oxygen species may play a role. On the other hand, melatonin is a pineal hormone with a well-known potent antioxidant activity and a remarkable modulatory effect on many behavioral processes. The present study revealed that oral diazinon administration (25 mg/kg) increased anxiety behavior in rats subjected to elevated plus maze and open-field tests possibly via the induction of changes in brain monoamines levels (dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin). Additionally, brain lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels were elevated, while the activity of brain glutathione peroxidase enzyme was reduced by diazinon. Co-administration of oral melatonin (10 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the anxiogenic activity of diazinon, rebalanced brain monoamines levels, decreased brain MDA and TNF-α levels, and increased the activity of brain glutathione peroxidase enzyme. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Ahmed M.A.E.,MISR University for Science and Technology
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2014
The current study investigated the neuroprotective activity of idebenone against pilocarpine-induced seizures and hippocampal injury in rats. Idebenone is a ubiquinone analog with antioxidant, and ATP replenishment effects. It is well tolerated and has low toxicity. Previous studies reported the protective effects of idebenone against neurodegenerative diseases such as Friedreich's ataxia and Alzheimer's disease. So far, the efficacy of idebenone in experimental models of seizures has not been tested. To achieve this aim, rats were randomly distributed into six groups. Two groups were treated with either normal saline (0.9 %, i.p., control group) or idebenone (200 mg/kg, i.p., Ideb200 group) for three successive days. Rats of the other four groups (P400, Ideb50 + P400, Ideb100 + P400, and Ideb200 + P400) received either saline or idebenone (50, 100, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) for 3 days, respectively followed by a single dose of pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p.). All rats were observed for 6 h post pilocarpine injection. Latency to the first seizure, and percentages of seizures and survival were recorded. Surviving animals were sacrificed, and the hippocampal tissues were separated and used for the measurement of lipid peroxides, total nitrate/nitrite, glutathione and DNA fragmentation levels, in addition to catalase and Na+, K+-ATPase activities. Results revealed that in a dose-dependent manner, idebenone (100, 200 mg/kg) prolonged the latency to the first seizure, elevated the percentage of survival and diminished the percentage of pilocapine-induced seizures in rats. Significant increases in lipid peroxides, total nitrate/nitrite, DNA fragmentation levels and catalase activity, in addition to a significant reduction in glutathione level and Na+, K+-ATPase activity were observed in pilocarpine group. Pre-administration of idebenone (100, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) to pilocarpine-treated rats, significantly reduced lipid peroxides, total nitrate/nitrite, DNA fragmentation levels, and normalized catalase activity. Moreover, idebenone prevented pilocarpine-induced detrimental effects on brain hippocampal glutathione level, and Na+, K+-ATPase enzyme activity in rats. Data obtained from the current investigation emphasized the critical role of oxidative stress in induction of seizures by pilocarpine and elucidated the prominent neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of idebenone in this model. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.