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Cairo, Egypt

El Ashry E.S.H.,Alexandria University | EL-Rafey E.,Alexandria University | Rezki N.,Taibah University | Abou-Elnaga H.H.,Petroleum and Petrochemical Industries Consultant | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Saudi Chemical Society | Year: 2014

Functionalized 4,5-diphenyl-imidazoles, 4,5-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazoles and 5-(. o-hydroxyphenyl)-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoles at the 2-position with thiol, thiomethyl and thiobenzyl groups, have been tested as antioxidant additives for lubricating oils. Whereas the thiomethyl groups in such compounds increased the antioxidant property than the thiol group, the corresponding thiobenzyl groups did the reverse. The results can be explained, based on correlating the electron donating and withdrawing abilities of the substituents with the oxidation stability. The triazoles carrying a phenolic hydroxyl group have more antioxidant power than those without such a group. The imidazoles gave the oils more oxidation stabilities than the two types of triazoles with the same functionalities. The 4,5-diphenyl-2-thiomethyl-imidazole (. 2), as an additive, has the highest antioxidant property, reaching the level of standard one when its concentration is 1.0% wt. instead of the 0.8% wt. of the standard. The correlation of the antioxidant character of the heterocyclic additives with their structures has been investigated using the semiempirical gas phase AM1 calculations for the studied heterocycles. The relative stability of the imidazoles 1 and 3 compared to 2 were in the order 2 > 1 > 3. Similarly, the relative stability of the triazoles are in the same order where 5 > 4 > 6 and 8 > 7 > 9. © 2011 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. Source


Hashem A.I.,Ain Shams University | Abou Elmagd W.S.I.,Ain Shams University | Salem A.E.,Misr Petroleum Company | El-Kasaby M.,ACPA Petroleum Additives Company | El-Nahas A.M.,ACPA Petroleum Additives Company
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects | Year: 2013

In this investigation, four vegetable oils (castor, linseed, sunflower, and jatropha) were treated with maleic anhydride in the presence of benzoyl peroxide as a radical initiator. The suitability of the adducts obtained as synthetic lubricants was tested by determining their physico-chemical properties applying the international standard methods. The oily adducts obtained proved to be promising as synthetic lubricants, especially their good thermal and oxidative stabilities. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Hashem A.I.,Ain Shams University | Abou Elmagd W.S.I.,Ain Shams University | Salem A.E.,Misr Petroleum Company | El-Kasaby M.,ACPA Petroleum Additives Company | El-Nahas A.M.,ACPA Petroleum Additives Company
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects | Year: 2013

Four vegetable oils are converted into polyoleate esters, with evaluation of their physico-chemical properties as synthetic lubricants. Castor oil, linseed oil, sunflower oil, and jatropha oil were converted into polyols via epoxidation and hydrolysis. Esterification of these polyols with excess oleic acid gave the polyoleate esters 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The results of physico-chemical determinations show that these esters are promising as synthetic lubricants. Esterification of castor oil itself with oleic acid gave the ester 5, which showed poor thermal and oxidative stabilities. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Sayed M.R.,Misr Petroleum Company | Hassan M.A.M.,Cairo University | Hassan A.A.,Minia University
WSEAS Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2013

This paper introduces comprehensive fast control characteristics and continuous compensation means using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System. Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices have been investigated and adopted in power engineering area. There are so many advantages in using FACTS devices. It can increase dynamic stability, loading capability of transmission lines, improve power quality as well as system security. It can also increase utilization of lowest cost generation. This paper presents a detailed Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System based algorithm for improving power system quality using Advanced Flexible AC Transmission Systems (AFACTS) controllers. Namely, Advanced Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors (ATCSCs), and Advanced Static Var Compensator (ASVC) were utilized in this research. This paper focuses on the operation of the FACTS device under generator fault that may cause any other transmission lines to be overflowed. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is used to determine the value of capacitor connected to the AFACTS. The proposed algorithm in this paper is tested on the IEEE 30 bus system as well as IEEE 14 bus system. Copyright © 2013 - All Rights Reserved. Source


El-saied F.A.,Menoufia University | EL Sayed A.S.,Misr Petroleum Company | Al Eneen M.A.A.,LOBP
Life Science Journal | Year: 2012

The objective of this work aimed at synthesis extreme pressure additive via residual sulfur extracted from crude oil. Residual sulfur was used in Sulforization process of plant oil (i.e.: Jatropha & Linseed oils). Sulforization process for plant oils was carried out according to certain conditions. Product obtained from Sulforization of jatropha oil, was additive A, while product obtained from Sulforization linseed oil was additive B. Comparative evaluation study between our local products A&B and two imported additives were carried out through bench and performance tests. From comparative study, it was found local additives A & B give the same efficiency at the same dose of imported once, as extreme pressure functions. Also, Additives A & B were found had antioxidant efficiency than imported once. Additive A & B by this way saving environmental from pollution of residual sulfur, beside highly economic value. © 2012. Zhengzhou University, Marsland Press. Source

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