Vivas M.,University of Extremadura |
Zas R.,Mision Biologica de Galicia |
Solla A.,University of Extremadura
Forestry | Year: 2012
Pitch canker, caused by the fungus Fusarium circinatum, is an introduced non-native disease on pines in natural and planted stands of Europe. Research has not been conducted to test whether a European native pine species shows genetic variation in susceptibility to this disease. Half-sib families from 39 Pinus pinaster clones and seedlings from one unimproved seed source (control) were evaluated for resistance. Pitch canker resistance was not genetically related to tree growth, but seed weight and germination rates were predictive of time-to-death. Heritabilities and associated genetic gains calculated from the greenhouse experiment were consistent, h i 2 = 0.18 and 0.45 for time-to-death and for tree mortality, respectively. These heritabilities are high enough to allow pitch canker to be reduced through appropriate genetic strategies. Results indicated that selection for growth of P. pinaster trees in breeding programs would not necessarily imply an increase of susceptibility to F. circinatum. This research may allow the use of native pine individuals as breeding stock or as sources to produce seeds with moderate levels of tolerance to F. circinatum. © Institute of Chartered Foresters, 2011. All rights reserved.
Olano J.M.,University of Valladolid |
Arzac A.,University of the Basque Country |
Garcia-Cervigon A.I.,University of Valladolid |
von Arx G.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest |
Rozas V.,Mision Biologica de Galicia
New Phytologist | Year: 2013
Tree-ring anatomy reflects the year-by-year impact of environmental factors on tree growth. Up to now, research in this field has mainly focused on the hydraulic architecture, with ray parenchyma neglected despite the growing recognition of its relevance for xylem function. Our aim was to address this gap by exploring the potential of the annual patterns of xylem parenchyma as a climate proxy. We constructed ring-width and ray-parenchyma chronologies from 1965 to 2004 for 20 Juniperus thurifera trees growing in a Mediterranean continental climate. Chronologies were related to climate records by means of correlation, multiple regression and partial correlation analyses. Ray parenchyma responded to climatic conditions at critical stages during the xylogenetic process; namely, at the end of the previous year's xylogenesis (October) and at the onset of earlywood (May) and latewood formation (August). Ray parenchyma-based chronologies have potential to complement ring-width chronologies as a tool for climate reconstructions. Furthermore, medium- and low-frequency signals in the variation of ray parenchyma may improve our understanding of how trees respond to environmental fluctuations and to global change. © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.
Rozas V.,Mision Biologica de Galicia |
Olano J.M.,University of Valladolid
Dendrochronologia | Year: 2013
Individual variation of tree-ring growth response to climate and heterogeneity of the local environment are usually neglected in dendrochronological research. Even if there is evidence showing that individual responsiveness to climate may depend on intrinsic traits such as tree age, size or sex, its modulation by the local heterogeneity of extrinsic factors has been less studied. Using an extensive, strictly regular sampling scheme across a 3300. ha woodland, we assessed the individual variation of tree-ring growth responses to climate in 100 Juniperus thurifera L. trees. The climatic response was evaluated by bootstrapped correlations of both population- and individual-based tree-ring chronologies with monthly records of precipitation, cloudiness, minimum and maximum temperatures. We studied also the influence of extrinsic abiotic (elevation, slope, heat load, tree location) and biotic (competition from neighbouring trees) factors on the individual growth variation and its climatic response. At a population level, growth was controlled by February-March precipitation, April minimum temperature, and June water stress. A significant proportion of individuals did not respond to those variables, but were sensitive to others not relevant at the population level. Inter-annual growth variation was strongly modulated by competition, whereas trees under lower competition levels, in eastern and warmer areas, were the most responsive to climate. The individual climatic response was, at least partially, modulated by the local heterogeneity of extrinsic factors. By considering environmental heterogeneity and neighbourhood interference we can identify the spectrum of site-dependent climatic responses in a population, which in turn will enable more realistic predictions of tree responses to ongoing climate change. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH.
de la Mata R.,Research Center Forestal Of Lourizan |
Zas R.,Mision Biologica de Galicia
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2010
The inland region of Galicia (NW Spain) marks the boundary between the Atlantic climate of the coastal area and the typical Mediterranean climate of central Spain. Compared to the Atlantic coast, climate in this area has a pronounced summer drought, lower annual precipitation, and higher annual thermal oscillation. Despite the high productivity and ecological importance of maritime pine in inland Galicia, local forest reproductive material (FRM) of high genetic quality is not available for this area. Seed sources originating elsewhere and of unknown adaptation to this area are commonly used for reforestation. With the aim of finding new sources of FRM for this region and exploiting the genetic gains of existing breeding programmes, we analysed the performance in field conditions of improved families of the Coastal Galicia (CG) and Western Australia (WA) breeding programmes. Growth, stem characteristics and branch habit were evaluated in five progeny trials established following a coastal-to-inland gradient. Likelihood-based analyses were used to estimate genetic correlations between environments and to test statistically for causes and patterns of genotype × environment interaction. Because of the strong non-random spatial structures and heterogeneity of residual variances, the analyses were carried out using heterogeneous residual variance mixed models on spatially adjusted data. The results indicated that there is not sufficient evidence to subdivide Galicia into the two current deployment areas. Interaction patterns do not reveal significant differences between zones, and crossover interactions for height growth are present both between and within areas. On the inland sites, the Atlantic improved materials clearly outperformed unimproved seedlots tested in adjacent provenance trials, suggesting the feasibility of using both the CG and WA breeding materials as sources of FRM for reforestation in inland Galicia. Of the two, the WA material showed excellent results for all traits. The inclusion of this material into the Galician maritime pine breeding population should be strongly considered. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Rozas V.,Mision Biologica de Galicia |
Garcia-Gonzalez I.,University of Santiago de Compostela
Global and Planetary Change | Year: 2012
Forest dieback is usually triggered by climatic extremes, even if tree decline can be caused by diverse biotic and abiotic stressors acting synergistically on tree vitality. Many case studies worldwide illustrate the global importance of drought-induced forest dieback under a context of climate warming. However, forest decline is also occurring in regions that are not water-limited, but where increasing rainfall and exceptionally rainy events are observed. Here we assessed the influence of inter-tree competition, regional water availability, and large-scale climate variation on the decline and death of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) in an Atlantic rainy forest in NW Spain. All healthy, declining, and dead trees in four replicated forest stands were mapped, and inter-tree competition was individually quantified with a distance-dependent competition index. Long-term variation of annual radial growth was analyzed on a selection of individuals per stand, and its dependence on climate variation was examined by correlation analysis with monthly climatic records. Trees under intense competition showed higher mortality risk. Increasing rainfall and the large-scale climatic pattern El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have influenced tree growth during recent decades, acting as long-term stressors. A detrimental effect of water surplus during both the year preceding growth and spring of the current year has been noticed since 1980. Extremely rainy conditions in 2001 resulted in strong short-term stress that killed trees suffering from intense competition and wetness-induced stress. Our findings support that water excess is a relevant triggering factor for dieback of dominant forest trees in rainy temperate deciduous forest. This pattern is possible in regions where increasing precipitation and more frequent and intense rainfall extremes, associated with global climate warming, are happening. Since climate warming may lead to higher total annual rainfall, and to an increase in frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events, forest dieback episodes associated with wetter conditions may become more common in the future. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.