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Sun Y.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Finne-Wistrand A.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Albertsson A.-C.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Xing Z.,University of Bergen | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A

The mechanical properties of amorphous, degradable, and highly porous poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) structures have been improved by using a 3D fiber deposition (3DF) method. Two designs of 3DF scaffolds, with 45° and 90° layer rotation, were printed and compared with scaffolds produced by a salt-leaching method. The scaffolds had a porosity range from 64% to 82% and a high interconnectivity, measured by micro-computer tomography. The 3DF scaffolds had 8-9 times higher compressive stiffness and 3-5 times higher tensile stiffness than the salt-leached scaffolds. There was a distinct decrease in the molecular weight during printing as a consequence of the high temperature. The chain microstructure was, however, not affected; the glass transition temperature and the decomposition temperature were constant. Human OsteoBlast-like cells were cultured in vitro and the cell morphology and distribution were observed by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The cell distribution on the 3DF scaffolds was more homogeneous than the salt-leached scaffolds, suggesting that 3DF scaffolds are more suitable as porous biomaterials for tissue engineering. These results show that it is possible to design and optimize the properties of amorphous polymer scaffolds. The 3DF method produce amorphous degradable poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) that are strong and particularly suitable for cell proliferation. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

De Haan H.G.,Leiden University | Bezemer I.D.,Leiden University | Doggen C.J.M.,Leiden University | Doggen C.J.M.,MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine | And 9 more authors.

There are no risk models available yet that accurately predict a person's risk for developing venous thrombosis. Our aim was therefore to explore whether inclusion of established thrombosis-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a venous thrombosis risk model improves the risk prediction. We calculated genetic risk scores by counting risk-increasing alleles from 31 venous thrombosis-associated SNPs for subjects of a large case-control study, including 2712 patients and 4634 controls (Multiple Environmental and Genetic Assessment). Genetic risk scores based on all 31 SNPs or on the 5 most strongly associated SNPs performed similarly (areas under receiver-operating characteristic curves [AUCs] of 0.70 and 0.69, respectively). For the 5-SNP risk score, the odds ratios for venous thrombosis ranged from 0.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.53) for persons with 0 risk alleles to 7.48 (95% CI, 4.49-12.46) for persons with more than or equal to 6 risk alleles. The AUC of a risk model based on known nongenetic risk factors was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.76-0.78). Combining the nongenetic and genetic risk models improved the AUC to 0.82 (95% CI, 0.81-0.83), indicating good diagnostic accuracy. To become clinically useful, subgroups of high-risk persons must be identified in whom genetic profiling will also be cost-effective. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Visser R.,Leiden University | Landman E.B.M.,MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine | Goeman J.,Leiden University | Wit J.M.,Leiden University | Karperien M.,MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine

Sotos syndrome (SoS) is characterized by tall stature, characteristic craniofacial features and mental retardation. It is caused by haploinsufficiency of the NSD1 gene. In this study, our objective was to identify downstream effectors of NSD1 and to map these effectors in signaling pathways associated with growth. Genome-wide expression studies were performed on dermal fibroblasts from SoS patients with a confirmed NSD1 abnormality. To substantiate those results, phosphorylation, siRNA and transfection experiments were performed. A significant association was demonstrated with the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway. Members of the fibroblast growth factor family such as FGF4 and FGF13 contributed strongly to the differential expression in this pathway. In addition, a diminished activity state of the MAPK/ERK pathway was demonstrated in SoS. The Ras Interacting Protein 1 (RASIP1) was identified to exhibit upregulated expression in SoS. It was shown that RASIP1 dose-dependently potentiated bFGF induced expression of the MAPK responsive SBE reporter providing further support for a link between NSD1 and the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. Additionally, we demonstrated NSD1 expression in the terminally differentiated hypertrophic chondrocytes of normal human epiphyseal growth plates. In short stature syndromes such as hypochondroplasia and Noonan syndrome, the activation level of the FGF-MAPK/ERK-pathway in epiphyseal growth plates is a determining factor for statural growth. In analogy, we propose that deregulation of the MAPK/ERK pathway in SoS results in altered hypertrophic differentiation of NSD1 expressing chondrocytes and may be a determining factor in statural overgrowth and accelerated skeletal maturation in SoS. © 2012 Visser et al. Source

Harink B.,MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine | Le Gac S.,MESA Institute for Nanotechnology | Barata D.,MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine | Van Blitterswijk C.,MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine | Habibovic P.,MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine
Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology

We present a microtiter plate-sized standalone chip holder for precise control of physiological conditions inside closed microfluidic cell culture systems, made from gas-impermeable materials. Specifically, we demonstrate the suitability of the holder to support cell growth in a glass chip, to allow time-lapse imaging of live cells and the creation of a hypoxic environment, all relevant for applications in regenerative medicine research. © 2014 the Partner Organisations. Source

Van Der Aa L.J.,MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine | Vader P.,University Utrecht | Storm G.,MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine | Storm G.,University Utrecht | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Controlled Release

In the development of potent polymeric gene carriers for gene therapy, a good interaction between the polymer and the nucleotide is indispensable to form small and stable polyplexes. Polymers with relatively high cationic charge density are frequently used to provide these interactions, but high cationic charge is usually associated with severe cytotoxicity. In this study an alternative, nucleotide specific binding interaction based on intercalation was investigated to improve polymer/pDNA complex formation. For this purpose bioreducible poly(amido amine) copolymers (p(CBA-ABOL/Nic)) were synthesized with different degrees of intercalating quaternary nicotinamide (Nic) groups and amide-substituted derivatives in their side chains. The quaternary nicotinamide group was chosen as intercalating moiety because this group is part of the naturally occurring NAD+ coenzyme and is therefore expected to be non-toxic and non-carcinogenic. The presence of the quaternary nicotinamide moieties in the poly(amido amine) copolymers showed to effectively promote self-assembled polyplex formation already at low polymer/DNA ratios and results in decreased polyplex size and increased stability of the polyplexes. Furthermore, in contrast to the primary amine functionalized analogs the quaternary nicotinamide polymers showed to be non-hemolytic, indicating their compatibility with cell membranes. Polymers with 25% of Nic in the side chains induced GFP expressions of about 4-5 times that of linear PEI, which is comparable with p(CBA-ABOL), the parent PAA without Nic, but at a two- to fourfold lower required polymer dose. N-phenylation of the nicotinamide functionality even further reduces the required polymer dose to form stable polyplexes, which is a major improvement for these kinds of cationic polymers. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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