Bajszar G.,MIOX Corporation |
Dekonenko A.,University of New Mexico
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010
Our research on the mechanisms of action of chlorine-based oxidants on Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water revealed a dual-phase effect: (i) response to oxidative stress, which was demonstrated by induced expression of the Hsp70 heat shock gene, and (ii) oocyst inactivation as a result of long-term exposure to oxidants. The relative biocidal effects of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) and electrolytically generated mixed oxidant solution (MOS) on C. parvum oocysts were compared at identical free chlorine concentrations. Oocyst inactivation was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) amplification of the heatinduced Hsp70 mRNA and compared with tissue culture infectivity. According to both assays, within the range between 25 and 250 mg/liter free chlorine and with 4 h contact time, MOS exhibits a higher efficacy in oocyst inactivation than hypochlorite. Other RNA-based viability assays, aimed at monitoring the levels of β-tubulin mRNA and 18S rRNA, showed relatively slow decay rates of these molecules following disinfection by chlorinebased oxidants, rendering these molecular diagnostic viability markers inappropriate for disinfection efficacy assessment. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2012
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project proposes to develop novel approaches to water treatment that cost-effectively remove inorganic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water. These DBPs, known as oxyhalides, are typically associated with standard water disinfection methods but can also be present in water as a result of industrial contamination. Oxyhalides present known public health risks and are targeted for regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency as well as state environmental agencies. Research in this project will focus on two electrochemical methods that mitigate contamination of water with oxyhalides. The first is a novel electrochemical system capable of directly reducing oxyhalides to their corresponding halide ions while the second investigates unique preventative measures to minimize oxyhalide formation during hypochlorite production using on-site electrochemical generation systems.
The commercial impacts of this project are that the proposed research will provide novel water treatment technology solutions that increase access to high quality potable water. An electrochemical device capable of complete reduction of oxyhalides will provide an effective, economical new technology that can be used on scales ranging from individual households to major aquifer remediation projects. Similarly, reduced production of oxyhalides during brine electrolysis processes will help municipalities and industrial water producers meet current and planned drinking water standards regulating the amounts of chlorate and perchlorate allowed in potable water. Both of the technologies developed as a result of this research will result in a broad impact on public health by providing technological barriers to the exposure of toxic oxyhalides.
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 491.75K | Year: 2011
This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II project will build on the successful results obtained during Phase I. Phase I research indicated that aqueous chlorine can be used as an alternative chemical source for Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs), and was capable of producing hydroxyl and other highly reactive radicals when illuminated with ultraviolet light. These radicals were harnessed to destroy and mineralize small organic molecules and impact the structure of natural organic matter found in surface water. Phase II research will focus on developing a solid understanding of how aqueous chlorine based AOPs can be integrated into overall water treatment processes, compare the efficacies of aqueous chlorine and hydrogen peroxide based AOPs, and demonstrate that solar ultraviolet light can be used to drive this process. The broader impacts of this research center around the ability to provide a greener, more efficient AOP which can be used to more economically produce high quality water. Phase II research will deliver an increased understanding of chlorine-based AOP technology, enabling the development of products with enhanced capabilities towards the removal of trace organic contaminants from water. Successful completion of this research will positively impact the quality of both drinking water and packaged beverages. In addition, the research could permanently remove contaminants from the environment through mineralization, preventing unintended release from municipal and industrial wastewater plants. Finally, since this process can be driven using solar energy, the resulting technology will be deployable in rural and developing regions of the world at an affordable cost.
MIOX Corporation | Date: 2012-03-08
Method and apparatus for electrochemical generation of quaternary ammonium hypohalite salts, which may be combined with the capabilities of free chlorine to form a novel biocidal system. An aqueous solution preferably comprising dissolved quaternary ammonium halide salts is electrolyzed, which converts the halide component of the quaternary ammonium salt to the corresponding halogen. The halogen dissolves in the aqueous solution producing hypohalous acid and hypohalite anion. A combination of one or more quaternary ammonium compounds and a halide salt, surfactant, and/or germicide may be electrolyzed. The solution may be incorporated into a delivery system for example, a spray bottle or hand sanitizer, or as part of a dispensing system whereby quaternary ammonium halide salts absorbed onto wipes can be dispensed as quaternary ammonium hypohalite salts.
MIOX Corporation | Date: 2011-08-04
Method and apparatus for a low maintenance, high reliability on-site electrolytic generator incorporating automatic cell monitoring for contaminant film buildup, as well as automatically removing or cleaning the contaminant film. This method and apparatus preferably does not require human intervention to clean. For high current density cells, cleaning is preferably performed by reversing the polarity of the electrodes and applying a lower current density to the electrodes, preferably by adjusting the salinity or brine concentration of the electrolyte while keeping the voltage constant. Electrolyte flow preferably comprises water and brine flows which are preferably separately monitored and automatically adjusted. For bipolar cells, flow between modules arranged in parallel is preferably approximately equally distributed between modules and between intermediate electrodes within each module.