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Newton R.L.,Minority | Griffith D.M.,Vanderbilt University | Kearney W.B.,Health Ministry | Bennett G.G.,Duke University
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2014

When compared with men of other racial or ethnic groups, African American men are more likely to experience adverse health conditions. The systematic review objectives were to (i) determine the current evidence base concerning African American men's response to lifestyle behavioural interventions designed to promote weight loss, increase physical activity, and/or improve healthy eating and (ii) determine the next steps for research in these areas. The PubMed, Web of Science, Psych Info and Cochrane databases were searched to identify papers published before January 1, 2013 that reported change in weight, physical activity and/or dietary patterns in African American men aged 18 and older, as a result of behavioural change strategies. The titles and abstracts of 1,403 papers were screened; after removing duplicates, 141 papers were read to determine their eligibility. Seventeen publications from 14 studies reported outcomes for African American men. Eight large multi-centre trials and six community-based studies were identified. African American men were an exclusive sample in only four studies. Five studies showed statistically significant improvements. Although the available evidence appears to show that these interventions produce positive results, the relative and the long-term effectiveness of weight loss, dietary and/or physical activity interventions for this population are unknown. © 2014 World Obesity. Source

Lustrino M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Lustrino M.,CNR Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering | Duggen S.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Duggen S.,Minority | Rosenberg C.L.,Free University of Berlin
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2011

The central-western Mediterranean area is a key region for understanding the complex interaction between igneous activity and tectonics. In this review, the specific geochemical character of several 'subduction-related' Cenozoic igneous provinces are described with a view to identifying the processes responsible for the modifications of their sources. Different petrogenetic models are reviewed in the light of competing geological and geodynamic scenarios proposed in the literature.Plutonic rocks occur almost exclusively in the Eocene-Oligocene Periadriatic Province of the Alps while relatively minor plutonic bodies (mostly Miocene in age) crop out in N Morocco, S Spain and N Algeria. Igneous activity is otherwise confined to lava flows and dykes accompanied by relatively greater volumes of pyroclastic (often ignimbritic) products. Overall, the igneous activity spanned a wide temporal range, from middle Eocene (such as the Periadriatic Province) to the present (as in the Neapolitan of southern Italy). The magmatic products are mostly SiO2-oversaturated, showing calcalkaline to high-K calcalcaline affinity, except in some areas (as in peninsular Italy) where potassic to ultrapotassic compositions prevail. The ultrapotassic magmas (which include leucitites to leucite-phonolites) are dominantly SiO2-undersaturated, although rare, SiO2-saturated (i.e., leucite-free lamproites) appear over much of this region, examples being in the Betics (southeast Spain), the northwest Alps, northeast Corsica (France), Tuscany (northwest Italy), southeast Tyrrhenian Sea (Cornacya Seamount) and possibly in the Tell region (northeast Algeria).Excepted for the Alpine case, subduction-related igneous activity is strictly linked to the formation of the Mediterranean Sea. This Sea, at least in its central and western sectors, is made up of several young (<30Ma) V-shaped back-arc basins plus several dispersed continental fragments, originally in crustal continuity with the European plate (Sardinia, Corsica, Balearic Islands, Kabylies, Calabria, Peloritani Mountains). The bulk of igneous activity in the central-western Mediterranean is believed to have tapped mantle 'wedge' regions, metasomatized by pressure-related dehydration of the subducting slabs. The presence of subduction-related igneous rocks with a wide range of chemical composition has been related to the interplay of several factors among which the pre-metasomatic composition of the mantle wedges (i.e., fertile vs. refractory mineralogy), the composition of the subducting plate (i.e., the type and amount of sediment cover and the alteration state of the crust), the variable thermo-baric conditions of magma formation, coupled with variable molar concentrations of CO2 and H2O in the fluid phase released by the subducting plates are the most important.Compared to classic collisional settings (e.g., Himalayas), the central-western Mediterranean area shows a range of unusual geological and magmatological features. These include: a) the rapid formation of extensional basins in an overall compressional setting related to Africa-Europe convergence; b) centrifugal wave of both compressive and extensional tectonics starting from a 'pivotal' region around the Gulf of Lyon; c) the development of concomitant Cenozoic subduction zones with different subduction and tectonic transport directions; d) subduction 'inversion' events (e.g., currently along the Maghrebian coast and in northern Sicily, previously at the southern paleo-European margin); e) a repeated temporal pattern whereby subduction-related magmatic activity gives way to magmas of intraplate geochemical type; f) the late-stage appearance of magmas with collision-related 'exotic' (potassic to ultrapotassic) compositions, generally absent from simple subduction settings; g) the relative scarcity of typical calcalkaline magmas along the Italian peninsula; h) the absence of igneous activity where it might well be expected (e.g., above the hanging-wall of the Late Cretaceous-Eocene Adria-Europe subduction system in the Alps); i) voluminous production of subduction-related magmas coeval with extensional tectonic rìgimes (e.g., during Oligo-Miocene Sardinian Trough formation).To summarize, these salient central-western Mediterranean features, characterizing a late-stage of the classic 'Wilson Cycle' offer a 'template' for interpreting magmatic compositions in analogous settings elsewhere. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Introduction A recent report showed that 13.1% of US middle and high school students were exposed to tobacco coupons in the past 30 days in 2012. The current study reanalysed data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey 2012 to examine the associations between exposure to tobacco coupons in the past 30 days and predictors of smoking among US youth, by smoking status. Methods 24 658 middle and high school students were asked if and where they had received tobacco coupons in the past 30 days. Demographics, smoking behaviours, smoking-related beliefs, susceptibility to smoking and confidence in quitting smoking were assessed. Analyses were stratified by smoking status (never smokers, experimenters and current smokers). Data were weighted to be representative of the US youth. Results Exposure to tobacco coupons was associated with lower likelihood of denying the social benefits of cigarette smoking and believing all tobacco products are dangerous; higher likelihood of being susceptible to smoking (among never smokers); lower likelihood to feel confident in quitting cigarettes completely (among current smokers); and higher likelihood to intend to purchase cigarettes in the next 30 days (among experimenters and current smokers; p<0.05). Conclusions Tobacco coupons may promote smoking and hinder smoking cessation among youth. Regulating tobacco coupons may reduce youth smoking in the USA. Further research is needed to determine the effect of tobacco coupons on youth tobacco use globally. © 2016, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Source

Chen C.,Minority | Xierali I.,American Medical Colleges | Piwnica-Worms K.,Thomas Jefferson University | Phillips R.,American Board of Family Medicine
Health Affairs | Year: 2013

Graduate medical education (GME), the system to train graduates of medical schools in their chosen specialties, costs the government nearly $13 billion annually, yet there is little accountability in the system for addressing critical physician shortages in specific specialties and geographic areas. Medicare provides the bulk of GME funds, and the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 redistributed nearly 3,000 residency positions among the nation's hospitals, largely in an effort to train more residents in primary care and in rural areas. However, when we analyzed the outcomes of this recent effort, we found that out of 304 hospitals receiving additional positions, only 12 were rural, and they received fewer than 3 percent of all positions redistributed. Although primary care training had net positive growth after redistribution, the relative growth of nonprimary care training was twice as large and diverted would-be primary care physicians to subspecialty training. Thus, the two legislative and regulatory priorities for the redistribution were not met. Future legislation should reevaluate the formulas that determine GME payments and potentially delink them from the hospital prospective payment system. Furthermore, better health care workforce data and analysis are needed to link GME payments to health care workforce needs. ©2013 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc. Source

Lloyd P.,Minority | Lloyd P.,George Washington University
International Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Objective: To estimate Toxocara infection rates by age, gender and ethnicity for US counties using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods: After initial analysis to account for missing data, a binary regression model is applied to obtain relative risks of Toxocara infection for 20,396 survey subjects. The regression incorporates interplay between demographic attributes (age, ethnicity and gender), family poverty and geographic context (region, metropolitan status). Prevalence estimates for counties are then made, distinguishing between subpopulations in poverty and not in poverty. Results: Even after allowing for elevated infection risk associated with poverty, seropositivity is elevated among Black non-Hispanics and other ethnic groups. There are also distinct effects of region. When regression results are translated into county prevalence estimates, the main influences on variation in county rates are percentages of non-Hispanic Blacks and county poverty. Conclusions: For targeting prevention it is important to assess implications of national survey data for small area prevalence. Using data from NHANES, the study confirms that both individual level risk factors and geographic contextual factors affect chances of Toxocara infection. © 2010 Swiss School of Public Health. Source

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