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Saint Paul, MN, United States

Clark S.,Alpharma LLC | Porter R.,Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory | McComb B.,Jennie O Turkey Store | Lippert R.,Willmar Poultry Company | And 3 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2010

Clostridial dermatitis of turkeys (CDT) has emerged as a major issue across most geographic regions of the United States. The prevalence and severity of dermatitis has increased over the last several years, since the time it was first reported in 1993. Cellulitis in poultry can be associated with Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli, but the more recent field situation in turkeys is specifically associated with Clostridium spp. The prevalence of cellulitis is relatively low; however, the disease can be devastating in the individual flocks affected. Clostridium septicum, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium sordelli, and S. aureus can cause cellulitis. Escherichia coli, Streptococcus spp., and other bacteria have occasionally been isolated from birds diagnosed with cellulitis. CDT appears as excessive mortality in older birds around 1618 weeks of age. It has been reported from field experience as early as 7 wk of age. Clinical signs of CDT can range from sudden death to inappetence, depression, leg weakness, recumbency, and ataxia. The disease is characterized by reddish to dark or greenish discoloration of the skin around the thighs, abdomen, keel, tail region, back, and wings. The lesions can extend into the underlying muscles, and there can be gas bubbles under the skin which result in crepitation. Some cases present with dead birds having "bubbly tail," fluid-filled blisters associated with broken feather follicles around the base of the tail. Bubbly tail in breeder toms might not cause excessive mortality, but the lesions are so severe that the birds cannot be used for semen collection. Incidence of mortality from this condition can be severe and acute (i.e., rapid onset of high mortality). The dead birds decompose very quickly. Microscopically, there is necrosis, with or without inflammation of the skin, especially in the dermis and occasionally in the skeletal muscles, associated with large numbers of rod-shaped bacteria. Overcrowding, aggressive birds, poorwet litter, decreased down time, a contaminated environment including feed and water, poor hygienic conditions, and contaminated vaccines and vaccine equipment, etc., can predispose birds for CDT. Preventative measures and treatment are discussed extensively in this review. © 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

Phelps N.B.D.,Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory | Phelps N.B.D.,University of Minnesota | Mor S.K.,Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory | Armien A.G.,Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

During both regulatory and routine surveillance sampling of baitfish from the states of Illinois, Minnesota, Montana, and Wisconsin, USA, isolates (n = 20) of a previously unknown picornavirus were obtained from kidney/spleen or entire viscera of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and brassy minnows (Hybognathus hankinsoni). Following the appearance of a diffuse cytopathic effect, examination of cell culture supernatant by negative contrast electron microscopy revealed the presence of small, round virus particles (∼30-32 nm), with picornavirus-like morphology. Amplification and sequence analysis of viral RNA identified the agent as a novel member of the Picornaviridae family, tentatively named fathead minnow picornavirus (FHMPV). The full FHMPV genome consisted of 7834 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analysis based on 491 amino acid residues of the 3D gene showed 98.6% to 100% identity among the 20 isolates of FHMPV compared in this study while only 49.5% identity with its nearest neighbor, the bluegill picornavirus (BGPV) isolated from bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Based on complete polyprotein analysis, the FHMPV shared 58% (P1), 33% (P2) and 43% (P3) amino acid identities with BGPV and shared less than 40% amino acid identity with all other picornaviruses. Hence, we propose the creation of a new genus (Piscevirus) within the Picornaviridae family. The impact of FHMPV on the health of fish populations is unknown at present.

Zhang Y.,University of Minnesota | Guo H.,University of Minnesota | Deis J.A.,University of Minnesota | Mashek M.G.,University of Minnesota | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2014

Background: Lipocalin 2 is a recently characterized adipokine/cytokine known to be a critical regulator of metabolic homeostasis. Results: Lcn2 deficiency impairs BAT activation by reducing peroxisomal and mitochondrial oxidation of lipids and the recruitment of functional brown adipocytes. Conclusion: We demonstrate a novel role of Lcn2 in oxidative metabolism and BAT activation via a nonadrenergic pathway. Significance: Our findings advance understanding of the adrenergic independent mechanism for BAT activation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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