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Schousboe J.T.,Park Nicollet Osteoporosis Center and Institute for Research and Education | Rosen H.R.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Rosen H.R.,University of Minnesota | Vokes T.J.,University of Chicago | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Densitometry

It is unknown how well prediction models incorporating multiple risk factors identify women with radiographic prevalent vertebral fracture (PVFx) compared with simpler models and what their value might be in clinical practice to select older women for lateral spine imaging. We compared 4 regression models for predicting PVFx in women aged 68 y and older enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures with a femoral neck T-score ≤ -1.0, using area under receiving operator characteristic curves (AUROC) and a net reclassification index. The AUROC for a model with age, femoral neck bone mineral density, historical height loss (HHL), prior nonspine fracture, body mass index, back pain, and grip strength was only minimally better than that of a more parsimonious model with age, femoral neck bone mineral density, and historical height loss (AUROC 0.689 vs 0.679, p values for difference in 5 bootstrapped samples <0.001-0.35). The prevalence of PVFx among this older population of Caucasian women remained more than 20% even when women with low probability of PVFx, as estimated by the prediction models, were included in the screened population. These results suggest that lateral spine imaging is appropriate to consider for all Caucasian women aged 70 y and older with low bone mass to identify those with PVFx. © 2014 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Source

Bekwelem W.,University of Minnesota | Connolly S.J.,McMaster University | Halperin J.L.,The New School | Adabag S.,Minneapolis Veterans Administration Medical Center | And 8 more authors.

Background - Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is a major cause of thromboembolic events. In comparison with atrial fibrillation-related stroke, extracranial systemic embolic events (SEEs) remain poorly defined. Methods and Results - All suspected SEEs reported among 37 973 participants of 4 large contemporary randomized clinical trials of anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation were independently readjudicated for clinical and objective evidence of sudden loss of perfusion of a limb or organ. Over 91 746 patient-years of follow-up, 221 SEEs occurred in 219 subjects. The SEE incidence was 0.24 of 100 and stroke incidence was 1.92 of 100 patient-years. In comparison with patients with stroke, those with SEE were more often female (56% versus 47%; P=0.01) and had comparable mean age (73.1±8.5 versus 73.5±8.8 years; P=0.57) and mean CHADS2 scores (2.4±1.3 versus 2.5±1.2; P=0.33). SEEs more frequently involved the lower extremity (58%) than visceral-mesenteric (31%) or upper extremity (10%). SEE-related care involved clinic assessment alone in 5%, 30% were hospitalized without procedures, 60% underwent endovascular or surgical intervention, and 5% underwent amputation. Within 30 days, 54% of patients recovered fully, 20% survived with deficits, and 25% died. Thirty-day mortality was greater after visceral-mesenteric than lower- or upper-extremity SEE (55%, 17%, and 9%, respectively, P≤0.0001). The relative risk of death throughout follow-up was 4.33 (95% confidence interval, 3.29-5.70) after SEE versus 6.79 (95% confidence interval, 6.22-7.41) after stroke in comparison with patients without either event. Conclusions - SEE constituted 11.5% of clinically recognized thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and was associated with high morbidity and mortality. SEE mortality was comparable to that of ischemic stroke and varied by anatomic site. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

White T.,University of Minnesota | White T.,Center for Magnetic Resonance Research | White T.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Magnotta V.A.,University of Iowa | And 19 more authors.
Schizophrenia Bulletin

Background: Emerging evidence implicates white matter (WM) abnormalities in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in the presentation of WM abnormalities in the existing studies. The object of this study was to evaluate WM integrity in a large sample of patients with first-episode (FE) and chronic schizophrenia in comparison to matched control groups. Our goal was to assess whether WM findings occurred early in the illness or whether these abnormalities developed with the illness over time. Methods: Participants included 114 patients with schizophrenia (31 FE and 83 chronic patients) and 138 matched controls. High-resolution structural and diffusion tensor images were obtained on all participants. Measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) were calculated for the 4 cortical lobes and the cerebellum and brain stem. Results: FA was significant lower in patients vs controls in the whole brain and individually in the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes. FA was not significantly different in the brain stem or cerebellum. FA differences were significant only in patients with chronic schizophrenia and not in the FE group. Conclusions: We found global differences in the WM microstructure in patients with chronic but not FE schizophrenia. These findings suggest progressive alterations in WM microstructure. © 2010 The Author. Source

Chiros C.,Minneapolis Veterans Administration Medical Center | O'Brien W.H.,Bowling Green State University
Journal of Behavioral Medicine

Acceptance and chronic pain is an emerging topic both for research and intervention. Initial studies have demonstrated that acceptance is correlated with higher quality of daily emotional, social, and physical functioning in chronic pain populations. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the nature of the relationship between acceptance, appraisals that are relevant to chronic pain (i.e., control and catastrophizing), and coping among migraine headache sufferers. Seventy four participants with migraine headaches completed self report measures assessing appraisal, coping strategies, acceptance, and pain related disability. Sixty three participants also completed a 28-day daily dairy assessing headache activity, catastrophizing, control, acceptance, and coping strategies. Hierarchical regression and multilevel modeling were used to examine the relations between these variables. Results indicated that higher levels of pain-related acceptance were associated with lower levels of catastrophizing and pain-related interference, and increased perceived control. Participants who endorsed higher levels of pain-related acceptance also reported engaging in a higher level of activity and indicated they used fewer coping strategies on a daily basis. Acceptance continues to show promise as a way of viewing pain that lessens the detrimental impact of certain types of thoughts (i.e., catastrophizing), and leads to increased participation in daily life. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Curtis J.R.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Delzell E.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Chen L.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Black D.,University of California at San Francisco | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

Medication compliance may be a surrogate for factors that improve health outcomes such as fractures. Little is known about the size of this potential "healthy adherer" effect. We evaluated the hypothesis that compliance with placebo is associated inversely with bone loss and fractures among women participating in the Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT). Compliance with placebo and alendronate was evaluated using daily medication diaries. Women were defined as having high compliance if they took 80% or more of dispensed study medication. Change in bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed using mixed models comparing women with high versus lower compliance with placebo. Cox proportional-hazards models analyzed the association between placebo compliance and various types of fractures. Among 3169 women randomized to placebo, 82% had high compliance. Compared with women with lower placebo compliance, bone loss at the total hip was lower in compliant placebo-treated women (-0.43%/year versus -0.58%/year, p=.04). Among placebo-treated women, there were 46 hip, 110 wrist, 77 clinical vertebral, and 492 total clinical fractures. Compared with women with lower placebo compliance, women with high placebo compliance had a nonsignificant reduced risk for hip fracture [adjusted hazard ratio (HR)=0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30-1.45]. This trend was not observed for other fractures. Medication compliance may be a proxy for factors that confers benefit on reducing hip fracture (but not other types of fractures) independent of the effect of the medication itself. Nonrandomized studies of interventions designed to maintain or improve bone density and/or hip fracture may need to consider medication compliance as a confounder to better estimate true intervention effects. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. Source

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