South Saint Paul, MN, United States
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Sandoval Y.,Minneapolis | Sandoval Y.,Hennepin County Medical Center | Apple F.S.,Hennepin County Medical Center | Apple F.S.,University of Minnesota
Clinical Chemistry | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: How to select a presumably normal population for the establishment of 99th percentile cutoffs for cardiac troponin assays has not been adequately addressed. Lack of attention to this question can result in misleading medical decision cutoffs. CONTENT: From our review of the peer-reviewed literature, including international recommendations, no uniform procedure is followed and no uniform guideline has been published by experts or regulatory agencies to guide researchers or manufacturers of cardiac troponin assays in their quest to define the health or "normality" of a reference population that is used to establish an accurate 99th percentile value. As we progress globally into the era of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays, we propose several suggested approaches to define presumably normal individuals by use of clinical and biomarker surrogates. SUMMARY: Our uniform approach to defining who is normal and who may not be normal will help to define diagnostic and risk outcomes assessments in the management of patients with suspected myocardial injury, both for use in current clinical practice and clinical research, as well as for the potential future use of cardiac troponin in primary prevention. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.


Colindres P.,Minneapolis | Susan Brewer M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2011

Background: The effect of selected antioxidants (grape seed extract (GS), oleoresin rosemary (OR), water-soluble oregano extract (WO), propyl gallate (PG), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)) on sensory, color and oxidative stability of cooked, frozen, reheated ground beef patties was evaluated. Beef lean and trim were ground; antioxidants and salt were added. Patties were cooked (71 °C), overwrapped in commercial polyvinyl chloride film, and stored frozen (-18 °C), then evaluated monthly for 6 months. Flavor, odor and color were determined using a descriptive panel. Instrumental color was determined by a spectrocolorimeter. Lipid oxidation was determined using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Results: After 6 months of storage, PG and GS samples had lower rancid odor scores and TBARS than controls. Control samples and those containing BHT did not differ statistically in sensory grassy or rancid odor, indicating that they were the most oxidized. TBARS correlated with grassy, rancid, cardboard and beef odors during the 6-month storage period. Conclusions: Based on TBARS, the order of effectiveness of the antioxidants was PG and GS > OR > BHA > WO and BHT > control. TBARS were well correlated with sensory evaluations of odor and flavor. Antioxidants also protected a* values during storage. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.


Cole J.B.,Hennepin Regional Poison Center | Dunbar J.F.,Hennepin County Medical Center | McIntire S.A.,University of Minnesota | Regelmann W.E.,University of Minnesota | Slusher T.M.,Minneapolis
Pediatrics | Year: 2015

Butyrfentanyl is a potent short-acting opioid and a fentanyl analog with uncertain clinical effects. A review of the literature reveals no human case reports of butyrfentanyl overdose. As the use of analog and synthetic drugs continues to increase, clinicians are often faced with tremendous uncertainty when they encounter patients exposed to these synthetic drugs. We describe, to our knowledge, the first case of a butyrfentanyl overdose that resulted in clinically significant hemoptysis, acute lung injury, hypoxic respiratory failure, and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Complicating this case was a false-positive urine drug screen for fentanyl. Clinicians who encounter fentanyl exposures should be aware they may in fact be dealing with butyrfentanyl. As little is known of butyrfentanyl and our patient suffered a significant pulmonary hemorrhage, those who encounter butyrfentanyl exposures should monitor for hemorrhagic complications. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


Lee H.-N.,Minneapolis | Bai Z.,Minneapolis | Newell N.,University of Minnesota | Lodge T.P.,Minneapolis | Lodge T.P.,University of Minnesota
Macromolecules | Year: 2010

We report a doubly thermoresponsive diblock copolymer that exhibits both an upper critical micellization temperature (UCMT) and a lower critical micellization temperature (LCMT) in ionic liquids. Dynamic light scattering and cloud point measurements are employed to investigate the micellization behavior of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PEO-PNIPAm) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([EMIM][BF4]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]), and their blends. In a single ionic liquid solvent, at low and high temperatures, the block copolymer self-assembles into PNIPAm-core and PEO-coremicelles, respectively. The core and corona of themicelles are reversibly switchable in response to the stimulus of temperature. Using [EMIM][BF4]/[BMIM] [BF4] blends as solvents, both theUCMTs andLCMTscan be easily tuned over a wide range of temperature by varying themixing ratio of the two ionic liquids.Depending on the relative positionsof theUCMTandLCMT, twotypes of doubly thermoresponsive systems (micelle-unimerinverse micelle and micelle-copolymer aggregates-inverse micelle) can be obtained. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Theryo G.,University of Minnesota | Jing F.,Minneapolis | Pitet L.M.,Minneapolis | Hillmyer M.A.,Minneapolis
Macromolecules | Year: 2010

A simplified synthetic approach for the facile synthesis of polylactide graft copolymers utilizing both ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and ring-opening transesterification polymerization (ROTEP) was reported. A comparison of the 1H NMR signals from the poly(DL-lactide) (PLA) initiation sites along the poly(1,5-cyclooctadiene-co-5-norbornene-2-methanol) (PCN) backbone and the terminating end groups revealed a slight excess of the terminal methine proton suggesting the graft copolymer may contain a small portion of PLA homopolymer. The calculated number-average molecular weight (Mn) of all the PLA chains in the system was 57 kg/mol. The size exclusion chromatography (SEC) data for the macroinitiator, PCN-332-10.9, showed a relatively symmetric, monomodal peak. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of thin sections of PCNL-332-10.9-95 revealed a phase-separated morphology consisting of spheroidal domains rich in poly-(1,5-cyclooctadiene) surrounded by a matrix of PLA.


Foulkes W.D.,McGill University | Priest J.R.,Minneapolis | Duchaine T.F.,McGill University
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2014

Dicer is central to microRNA-mediated silencing and several other RNA interference phenomena that are profoundly embedded in cancer gene networks. Most recently, both germline and somatic mutations in DICER1 have been identified in diverse types of cancer. Although some of the mutations clearly reduce the dosage of this key enzyme, others dictate surprisingly specific changes in select classes of small RNAs. This Review reflects on the molecular properties of the Dicer enzymes in small RNA silencing pathways, and rationalizes the newly discovered mutations on the basis of the activities and functions of its determinants. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


The aim of this exploratory study, which was informed by ethnographic principles, was to better understand the intergenerational transmission of historical trauma among urban American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in culturally specific sobriety maintenance programs. The results of the study were organized into 3 overarching categories, which included 10 themes that emerged contextually in relation to participants' lived experience of historical and associated traumas, substance abuse, and current involvement in a culturally specific sobriety maintenance program. © Centers for American Indian and Alaska Native Health.


Wolf G.K.,James ley Va Medical Center Mhbs | Strom T.Q.,Minneapolis | Strom T.Q.,University of Minnesota | Kehle S.M.,Minneapolis | Eftekhari A.,National Center for PTSD
Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation | Year: 2012

Objective: Preliminary examination of the effectiveness of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans who have experienced traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants: Ten Veterans with a history of mild to moderate TBI and chronic PTSD. Setting: Outpatient Mental Health/PTSD clinics and polytrauma centers at 2 VA medical centers. Measures: Comprehensive evaluation that included clinical interview, neuropsychologic evaluation, and/or neuroimaging; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist and Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition. Procedures: Standard implementation of the PE manual was used in all cases with slight adjustments to account for Veterans' residual cognitive deficits. Veterans completed between 8 and 18 sessions. Results: Veterans demonstrated significant reductions in total PTSD and depression symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. Within-group effect sizes were large. Conclusions: These findings suggest that PE can be safely and effectively implemented with Veterans with PTSD, a history of mild to moderate TBI, and current cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Jones B.H.,Minneapolis | Lodge T.P.,Minneapolis | Lodge T.P.,University of Minnesota
Polymer Journal | Year: 2012

Ternary blends of two homopolymers and a diblock copolymer can self-assemble into interpenetrating, three-dimensionally continuous networks with a characteristic length scale of ∼ 100 nm. In this review, we summarize our recent work demonstrating that these equilibrium fluid phases, known as polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions (BμE), can be designed as versatile precursors to nanoporous materials having pores with uniform sizes of ∼100 nm. As a model system, nanoporous polyethylene (PE) is derived from BμEs composed entirely of polyolefins. This monolithic material is then used as a template in the synthesis of other nanoporous materials for which structural control at the nm scale has traditionally been difficult to achieve. These materials, which include a high-temperature ceramic, polymeric thermosets and a conducting polymer, are produced by a simple nanocasting process, providing an inverse replica of the PE template. The PE is further used as a template for the production of hierarchically structured inorganic and polymeric materials by infiltration of mesostructured compounds into its pore network. The work described herein represents an unprecedented suite of nanoporous materials with well-defined pore structures prepared from a single PE template. They are anticipated to have potential application in diverse technological areas, including catalysis, separations and electronic devices. © 2012 The Society of Polymer Science, Japan (SPSJ) All rights reserved.


Cadieux K.V.,University of Minnesota | Slocum R.,Minneapolis
Journal of Political Ecology | Year: 2015

'Food justice' and 'food sovereignty' have become key words in food movement scholarship and activism. In the case of 'food justice', it seems the word is often substituted for work associated with projects typical of the alternative or local food movement. We argue that it is important for scholars and practitioners to be clear on how food justice differs from other efforts to seek an equitable food system. In the interests of ensuring accountability to socially just research and action, as well as mounting a tenable response to the 'feed the world' paradigm that often sweeps aside concerns with justice as distractions from the 'real' issues, scholars and practitioners need to be more clear on what it means to do food justice. In exploring that question, we identify four nodes around which food justice organizing appears to occur: trauma/inequity, exchange, land, and labor. This article sets the stage for a second one that follows, Notes on the practice of food justice in the U.S., where we discuss attempts to practice food justice.

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