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Cole J.B.,Hennepin Regional Poison Center | Dunbar J.F.,Hennepin County Medical Center | McIntire S.A.,University of Minnesota | Regelmann W.E.,University of Minnesota | Slusher T.M.,Minneapolis
Pediatrics | Year: 2015

Butyrfentanyl is a potent short-acting opioid and a fentanyl analog with uncertain clinical effects. A review of the literature reveals no human case reports of butyrfentanyl overdose. As the use of analog and synthetic drugs continues to increase, clinicians are often faced with tremendous uncertainty when they encounter patients exposed to these synthetic drugs. We describe, to our knowledge, the first case of a butyrfentanyl overdose that resulted in clinically significant hemoptysis, acute lung injury, hypoxic respiratory failure, and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Complicating this case was a false-positive urine drug screen for fentanyl. Clinicians who encounter fentanyl exposures should be aware they may in fact be dealing with butyrfentanyl. As little is known of butyrfentanyl and our patient suffered a significant pulmonary hemorrhage, those who encounter butyrfentanyl exposures should monitor for hemorrhagic complications. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


Samuelson T.W.,Minneapolis | Katz L.J.,Wills Eye Hospital | Wells J.M.,Glaukos | Duh Y.-J.,ClinReg Consulting Inc. | Giamporcaro J.E.,Glaukos
Ophthalmology | Year: 2011

Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of the iStent trabecular micro-bypass stent (Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA) in combination with cataract surgery in subjects with mild to moderate open-angle glaucoma. Design Prospective, randomized, open-label, controlled, multicenter clinical trial. Participants A total of 240 eyes with mild to moderate open-angle glaucoma with intraocular pressure (IOP) ≤24 mmHg controlled on 1 to 3 medications were randomized to undergo cataract surgery with iStent implantation (treatment group) or cataract surgery only (control). Fifty additional subjects were enrolled to undergo cataract surgery with iStent implantation under protocol expansion. Data in this report are based on the first 240 eyes enrolled. Intervention Implantation of the iStent trabecular micro-bypass stent in conjunction with cataract surgery or cataract surgery only. Main Outcome Measures The primary efficacy measure was unmedicated IOP ≤21 mmHg at 1 year. A secondary measure was unmedicated IOP reduction <20% at 1 year. Safety measures included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit-lamp observations, complications, and adverse events. Results The study met the primary outcome, with 72% of treatment eyes versus 50% of control eyes achieving the criterion (P<0.001). At 1 year, IOP in both treatment groups was statistically significantly lower from baseline values. Sixty-six percent of treatment eyes versus 48% of control eyes achieved <20% IOP reduction without medication (P = 0.003). The overall incidence of adverse events was similar between groups with no unanticipated adverse device effects. Conclusions Pressure reduction on fewer medications was clinically and statistically significantly better 1 year after stent plus cataract surgery versus cataract surgery alone, with an overall safety profile similar to that of cataract surgery alone. Financial Disclosure(s) Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology.


Slocum R.,Minneapolis | Cadieux K.V.,University of Minnesota
Journal of Political Ecology | Year: 2015

The lexicon of the U.S. food movement has expanded to include the term 'food justice.' Emerging after approximately two decades of food advocacy, this term frames structural critiques of agri-food systems and calls for radical change. Over those twenty years, practitioners and scholars have argued that the food movement was in danger of creating an 'alternative' food system for the white middle class. Alternative food networks drew on white imaginaries of an idyllic communal past, promoted consumer-oriented, market-driven change, and left yawning silences in the areas of gendered work, migrant labor, and racial inequality. Justice was often beside the point. Now, among practitioners and scholars we see an enthusiastic surge in the use of the term food justice but a vagueness on the particulars. In scholarship and practice, that vagueness manifests in overly general statements about ending oppression, or morphs into outright conflation of the dominant food movement's work with food justice (see What does it mean to do food justice? Cadieux and Slocum (2015), in this Issue). In this article, we focus on one of the four nodes (trauma/inequity, exchange, land and labor) around which food justice organizing appears to occur: acknowledging and confronting historical, collective trauma and persistent race, gender, and class inequality. We apply what we have learned from our research in U.S. and Canadian agri-food systems to suggest working methods that might guide practitioners as they work toward food justice, and scholars as they seek to study it. In the interests of ensuring accountability to socially just research and action, we suggest that scholars and practitioners need to be more clear on what it means to practice food justice. Towards such clarity and accountability, we urge scholars and practitioners to collaboratively document how groups move toward food justice, what thwarts and what enables them.


Cadieux K.V.,University of Minnesota | Slocum R.,Minneapolis
Journal of Political Ecology | Year: 2015

'Food justice' and 'food sovereignty' have become key words in food movement scholarship and activism. In the case of 'food justice', it seems the word is often substituted for work associated with projects typical of the alternative or local food movement. We argue that it is important for scholars and practitioners to be clear on how food justice differs from other efforts to seek an equitable food system. In the interests of ensuring accountability to socially just research and action, as well as mounting a tenable response to the 'feed the world' paradigm that often sweeps aside concerns with justice as distractions from the 'real' issues, scholars and practitioners need to be more clear on what it means to do food justice. In exploring that question, we identify four nodes around which food justice organizing appears to occur: trauma/inequity, exchange, land, and labor. This article sets the stage for a second one that follows, Notes on the practice of food justice in the U.S., where we discuss attempts to practice food justice.


Theryo G.,University of Minnesota | Jing F.,Minneapolis | Pitet L.M.,Minneapolis | Hillmyer M.A.,Minneapolis
Macromolecules | Year: 2010

A simplified synthetic approach for the facile synthesis of polylactide graft copolymers utilizing both ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and ring-opening transesterification polymerization (ROTEP) was reported. A comparison of the 1H NMR signals from the poly(DL-lactide) (PLA) initiation sites along the poly(1,5-cyclooctadiene-co-5-norbornene-2-methanol) (PCN) backbone and the terminating end groups revealed a slight excess of the terminal methine proton suggesting the graft copolymer may contain a small portion of PLA homopolymer. The calculated number-average molecular weight (Mn) of all the PLA chains in the system was 57 kg/mol. The size exclusion chromatography (SEC) data for the macroinitiator, PCN-332-10.9, showed a relatively symmetric, monomodal peak. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of thin sections of PCNL-332-10.9-95 revealed a phase-separated morphology consisting of spheroidal domains rich in poly-(1,5-cyclooctadiene) surrounded by a matrix of PLA.

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