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Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2009. | Award Amount: 3.67M | Year: 2010

The WASSERMed project will analyse, in a multi-disciplinary way, ongoing and future climate induced changes in hydrological budgets and extremes in southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East under the frame of threats to national and human security. A climatic and hydrological component directly addresses the reduction of uncertainty and quantification of risk. This component will provide an interface to other climatologic projects and models, producing climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean and Southern Europe, with special emphasis on precipitation. Five case studies will be considered: 1) Syros Island (Greece), 2) Sardinia Island (Italy), 3) Merguellil watershed (Tunisia), 4) Jordan river basin, and 5) the Nile River system (Egypt). The case studies are illustrative and represent situations which deserve special attention, due to their relevance to national and human security. Furthermore, impacts on key strategic sectors, such as agriculture and tourism, will be considered, as well as macroeconomic implications of water availability in terms of regional income, consumption, investment, trade flows, industrial structure and competitiveness. WASSERMed is an interdisciplinary project, which overall aims at all three targets of the call, through the integration of climate change scenarios, holistic water system modelling and interdisciplinary impact assessment, with three main contributions: a) Integration of climate change scenarios, holistic water system modelling. This provides results for reduction of uncertainties of climate change impacts on hydrology in the identified regions; b) Interdisciplinary approach, coupling macroeconomic implications and technical indicators. This provides a better assessment of climate effects to water resources, water uses and expected security risks; c) Proposal of specific adaptation measures for key sectors of the Mediterranean economy. This provides better basis for achieving water security.

Climate change and population growth are expected to exacerbate the water crisis of Mediterranean African Countries (MACs), where agriculture accounts for 80-85% of freshwater consumption. The aim of MADFORWATER is to develop a set of integrated technological and management solutions to enhance wastewater treatment, reuse for irrigation and water efficiency in agriculture in three MACs (Tunisia, Morocco and Egypt). MADFORWATER will develop and adapt to three main hydrological basins in the selected MACs technologies for the production of irrigation-quality water from drainage canals, municipal, agro-industrial and industrial wastewaters, and technologies for water efficiency and reuse in agriculture, initially validated at laboratory scale. Selected technologies will be further adapted and validated in four field pilot plants of integrated wastewater treatment/reuse. Integrated strategies for wastewater treatment and reuse targeted to the selected basins will be developed, and guidelines for the development of integrated water management strategies in other basins of the three target MACs will be produced, considering climate change, population increase and economic growth scenarios. The social and technical suitability of the developed technologies and non-technological instruments in relation to the local context will be evaluated with the participation of MAC stakeholders and partners. Guidelines on economic instruments and policies for the effective implementation of the proposed water management solutions in the target MACs will be developed. The project will lead to a relevant long-term impact in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia in terms of increased wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, food production and income in the agricultural and water treatment sectors, and decreased groundwater exploitation, water pollution and food contamination. The MADFORWATER consortium consists of 18 partners, 5 of which from the 3 MACs and 1 from China.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2010.1.3.3-1 | Award Amount: 4.40M | Year: 2011

The principal aim of the DEWFORA proposal is to develop a framework for the provision of early warning and response to mitigate the impact of droughts in Africa. The proposal has been built to achive three key targets: 1. Improved monitoring: by improving knowledge on drought forecasting, warning and mitigation, and advancing the understanding of climate related vulnerability to drought both in the current and in the projected future climate. 2. Prototype operational forecasting: by bringing advances made in the project to the pre-operational stage through development of prototype systems and piloting methods in operational drought monitoring and forecasting agencies. 3. Knowledge dissemination: through a stakeholders platform that includes national and regional drought monitoring and forecasting agencies, as well as NGOs and IGOs, and through capacity building programmes to help embed the knowledge gained in the community of African practitioners and researchers. To achieve these targets, the DEWFORA consortium brings together leading research institutes and universities; institutes that excel in application of state-of-the-art science in the operational domain; operational agencies responsible for meteorological forecasting, drought monitoring and famine warning; and established knowledge networks in Africa. The consortium provides an excellent regional balance, and the skilled coordinator and several partners have worked together in (European) research projects, implementation projects and capacity building programmes, thus building efficiently on previous and ongoing projects in Europe and Africa. The main impact of DEWFORA will be to increase the effectiveness of drought forecasting, warning and response. DEWFORA will provide guidance on how and where drought preparedness and adaptation should be targeted to contribute to increased resilience and improved effectiveness of drought mitigation measures.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SPA.2010.1.1-04 | Award Amount: 3.04M | Year: 2010

SIRIUS addresses efficient water resource management in water-scarce environments. It focuses in particular on water for food production with the perspective of a sustainable agriculture in the context of integrated river-basin management, including drought management. It aims at developing innovative and new GMES service capacities for the user community of irrigation water management and sustainable food production, in accordance with the vision of bridging and integrating sustainable development and economic competitiveness. SIRIUS merges two previously separate strands of activities, those under the umbrella of GMES, related to land products and services (which address water to some extent), and those conducted under FP5/6-Environment and national programs, related to EO-assisted user-driven products and services for the water and irrigation community. As such, it will draw on existing GMES Core Services as much as possible, by integrating these products into some of the required input for the new water management services.It also makes direct use of the EO-assisted systems and services developed in the FP6 project PLEIADeS and its precursor EU or national projects, like DEMETER, IRRIMED, ERMOT, MONIDRI, AGRASER, all addressing the irrigation water and food production sectors, some of which have resulted in sustainable system implementation since 2005. SIRIUS addresses users (water managers and food producers) at scales ranging from farm, over irrigation scheme or aquifer, to river-basins. It will provide them with maps of irrigation water requirements, crop water consumption and a range of further products for sustainable irrigation water use and management under conditions of water scarcity and drought, integrated in leading-edge participatory spatial online Decision-support systems. The SIRIUS service concept considers the economic, environmental, technical, social, and political dimensions in an integrated way.

Elshamy M.,Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation | Elshamy M.,Basin Water | Baldassarre G.D.,UNESCO IHE | van Griensven A.,UNESCO IHE
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering | Year: 2013

Assessing climate change effects on water resources is the first step in preparing climate change adaptation measures. However, this is often clouded by the large range of uncertainty resulting from a long chain of modeling activities. Despite progress made to improve climate models, downscaling methods, and hydrological models, uncertainties will remain. This paper proposes a framework to propagate and quantify the uncertainty from the different sources that can be applied at the full cascade but focuses on the climate-modeling component, i.e., different climate models and emissions scenarios. This framework is based on the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) methodology, which is widely used in the hydrologic community but has not been applied as such to climate impact modeling. This paper presents a preliminary application of the proposed framework to the flow of the main Nile at Dongola. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: ENERGY.2008.2.1.1 | Award Amount: 7.11M | Year: 2009

The main goal of this proposal is to join together the owners of the most advanced CPV technology, with respect to the state of the art, in order to research from its leading position new applications for CPV systems. In addition to opening up new markets, it will unveil possible sources of failure in new environments outside Europe, in order to assure component reliability. The proposed project will also try to improve the current technology of the industrial partners (ISOFOTON and CONCENTRIX) by accelerating the learning curve that CPV must follow in order to reach the competitive market, and lowering the cost under the current flat panel PV significantly within 3-4 years. The use of CPV systems in remote areas, together with harsher radiation, ambient and infrastructure conditions will help to increase the rate of progress of this technology. In addition, the ISFOCs contribution, which brings together seven power plants from seven CPV technologies up to 3 MWpeak, will allow creating the most complete database of components and systems performance to be generated as well as the effects of radiation and meteorology on systems operations. Finally, regarding the new applications for CPV subject, the project will use a CPV system sized 25 kWp in a stand-alone station in Egypt (NWRC) for the first time for water pumping and irrigation purposes. In a similar way ISOFOTON will connect up to 25 kWp CPV to the Moroccan ONE utility grid. From the research content point of view of this project, which is directly addressed by the scope of the call, the cooperative research between UPM, FhG-ISE and the two companies will be favoured by the fact that all are progressing in similar directions: developing two-stage optics CPV systems. In addition to these technology improvements the UPM is very interested in developing a new concept of module, recently patented, which will fulfil all required characteristics of a good CPV with less components and reducing cost.

El-Agha D.E.,Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation | Molden D.J.,SRI International | Ghanem A.M.,Cairo University
Irrigation and Drainage Systems | Year: 2011

This paper provides the methodology and results of a cross-scale diagnostic performance assessment program of the irrigation water management in the old lands of the Nile Delta of Egypt. The analysis was done at three levels; main canal level, branch canals level and on-farm level of the Meet Yazid command (82,740 ha) for the year 2008-2009 to highlight areas for improvement. At the main canal level the annual average percentage of irrigation water returning to drains and groundwater was 53% of the total water supplied. Since Meet Yazid lies at tail end of the delta, and there is groundwater salinity, opportunities for reuse are increasingly limited moving north to Lake Burullus. This would indicate opportunities for real water savings. The results of monthly relative water supply of the main canal indicated mismatch between demand and supply especially during the winter months, and when supply is low farmers do reuse drainage or groundwater. Also, the assessment of the three branch canals showed non-uniformity of water distribution and mismatch between demand and supply even when comparing improved and non-improved canals. At the on-farm level in paddy fields, the amount of irrigation flows to drains and saline sinks varied from 0. 46 to 0. 71 of inflow. In spite of these values of non-uniformity and low depleted fraction, the relative evapotranspiration (ratio of actual to potential) evaporation was uniformly high, indicating most crops of most farmers were not water stressed, which is also confirmed by the high yield values. The average values of productivity per unit water depleted by ETact were 1. 04 and 1. 05 kg/m3 for rice and wheat fields, respectively, with yields of rice and wheat at 8 and 6 t per ha respectively. On farm and tertiary improvements alone will not yield real water savings, as excess water in the main canal and drains will continue to flow out of the system. Rather the focus should first be on supplies to the main canal, accompanied by more precise on farm and water delivery practices at branch and tertiary levels, and ensuring that environmental flows are met. There is an added advantage of focusing on this tail end region of Egypt that this response would lessen vulnerability to reuse of polluted and saline water. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Walker R.,Lahmeyer International Gmbh | Wigand R.,Lahmeyer International Gmbh | El Naga I.A.,Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation | El-Zaher O.M.,Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation
International Journal on Hydropower and Dams | Year: 2012

The replacement of the old Nile barrages became necessary because of the change in the Nile's flow regime in the 1960s, following construction of the Aswan High dam. This change caused accelerated riverbed degradation downstream of the old structures, resulting in lower tailwater levels and, during the low flow seasons, higher heads across the barrage structures. The original Assiut barrage and its associated head regulator were constructed between 1898 and 1902 to divert Nile flows into the Ibrahimia Canal. Both parties to the loan see this project as securing long-term irrigation supplies which are crucial for the food security of Egypt, as well as electricity generation from a renewable and environmentally friendly source. The location of the new barrage was constrained by the densely populated city of Assiut on the western bank, and by the established sub-urban areas on the eastern bank. Potential locations outside the urban and suburban areas were identified several kilometers upstream and downstream of the old barrage.

Batt H.A.,Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation | Merkley G.P.,Utah State University
Irrigation and Drainage | Year: 2010

A participatory irrigation management policy has been adopted by the Egyptian Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation over the past two decades to support agricultural productivity, decrease open-channel conveyance losses, and increase agricultural water distribution equity. Two recent projects that dealt with the introduction of this policy in the Nile Delta through improvement projects are the irrigation improvement project (IIP) by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in Bahr El-Nor, and the integrated water management districts (IWMDs) by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in El-Ibrahimia. The implementation of these projects and their associated policies promoted the evolution and sustainability of these policies. An analysis of case studies for these projects, taking into account four dimensions of improvement and sustainability, shows that farmers were reluctant to accept the policies because they lacked training on various irrigation system improvement techniques, as introduced through the projects. Thus, the current focus should be on the reform of irrigation system improvement policies so that they are more realistic, and ultimately more successful, supporting agriculture and encouraging Ministry personnel to adopt and support participatory water management as implemented in the targeted Egyptian irrigation projects. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Abu-Zeid M.A.,Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation | Abdel-Rahman S.M.,National Research Center of Egypt
Alexandria Engineering Journal | Year: 2013

Egypt has a limited water resource and depends mainly on the Nile to satisfy its demands where agriculture consumes more than 80% of the water resources. There are more than 2000 pumping stations in Egypt of different systems operating under different conditions. Pumping stations are subjected to mechanical, electrical, and structural problems affecting behavior, efficiency, safety, and reliability of these stations. These stations are a part of probably the largest network of its kind as the entire volume of water flowing down the Nile (over 55.5 billion cubic meters) has to be pumped twice, once for irrigation and then back from the field to the drains. Pumping stations use large number of bearings with different types and applications. These bearings have a clear effect on the performance and efficiency of the pumps. Pump bearings in the arid regions are greatly affected by temperature, water quality, lubricants, and maintenance operations. This research focuses on analysis of damaged rolling element bearings of pumping system. The objective of the research is to enhance and control dynamic performance of pumping stations by avoiding damage and failure of bearings. The research proves that damaged bearings generate periodic, non-periodic, and transient forces causing high amplitude of vibration at high frequencies and increasing energy consumption. Bearing faults increase vibration level 85%, where power consumption increases 14% and pump efficiency decreases 18%. It is very important to take care of bearings during installation, alignment, balancing, and maintenance to assure safe and efficient pump operation for long period. As pump efficiency decreases, water power decreases and/or consumed power increases affecting water distribution and management system. Bearing faults break pumping system for long period affecting irrigation system. Optimum operation of pumping stations helps to save and manage water requirement for development and extension projects in arid regions. The measurements are performed on full scale model in the field, which proves reliable results on similar pumping stations. © 2013 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

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