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Kebede S.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Kebede S.,University of Avignon | Admasu G.,Ministry of Water Resources | Travi Y.,University of Avignon
Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies | Year: 2011

The isotope balance approach, which used 18O content of waters, has been used as an independent tool to estimate inflow to Lake Tana of surface water flows from ungauged catchment of Lake Tana (50% of the total area) and evaporative water loss in the vast plains adjoining the lake. Sensitivity analysis has been conducted to investigate the effects of changes in the input parameters on the estimated flux. Surface water inflowfrom ungauged catchment is determined to be in the order of 1.698 × 10 9 m 3a -1. Unaccountedwater loss from the lake has been estimated at 454 × 10 6 m 3a -1 (equivalent to 5% of the total via surface water). Since the lake is water tight to groundwater outflow, the major error introduced into the water balance computation is related to evaporative water loss in water from the flood plains. If drained, the water which is lost to evaporation can be used as an additional water resource for socio-economic development in the region (tourism, agriculture, hydropower, and navigation). Hydrological processes taking place in the vast flood plains of Lake Tana (origin of salinity, groundwater surface water interaction, origin of flood plain waters) have been investigated using isotopes of water and geochemistry as tracers. The salinity of shallow groundwaters in the flood plains is related to dissolution of salts accumulated in sediments covering former evaporation pools and migration of trace salt during recharge. The waters in the flood plains originate from local rainfall and river overflows and the effect of backwater flow from the lake is excluded. Minimum linkage exists between the surface waters in the flood plains and shallow groundwaters in alluvio lacustrine sediments suggesting the disappearance of flood waters following the rainy season, which is related to complete evaporation or drainage than seepage to the subsurface. There is no groundwater outflow from the lake. Inflow of groundwater cannot be ruled out. Discharge of groundwater to the lake is presumed to take place along rocky bottom in southern sector from Quaternary volcanics covering the southern sector of the catchment. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Rahman M.M.,Ministry of Water Resources | Sarkar S.,Indian School of Mines | Rai R.K.,DHI India Water and Environment Pvt. Ltd.
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering | Year: 2013

Bangladesh is a flood prone country where huge damages take place every year. Therefore, to minimize flood extremes, it is important to control the flood peaks at the upstream area through suitable watershed management practices. The flood control management at the watershed scale requires good quality flood data. However, in developing countries like Bangladesh, such hydrological information is rarely available at the watershed level. Under such circumstances, it is important to use a hydrological model representing the rainfall-runoff process to arrive at the extreme flows in the rivers, which require extreme rainfall data as a major inflow to the hydrologic system. Furthermore, the density of rain gauges in Bangladesh is low and the quality of available flood data is poor. Considering this, it is important to develop regional extreme rainfall maps for the reliable estimation of flood flows in the river by using a suitable modeling approach. Therefore, in the present paper, an attempt has been made to derive the regional best fit extreme rainfall pattern for Bangladesh for the estimation of extreme rainfall quantiles. This study uses the annual maximum daily rainfall of 68 rain gauge stations. An autocorrelation test isapplied to test the independency of the data. Later, considering the heterogeneity in the hydroclimatic and topographic details, entire rain gauge stations have been clustered into six hydroclimatically homogeneous regions; namely, northeast (NE), northwest (NW), southeast (SE), southwest (SW), coastal, and central regions, by using the k-mean clustering technique. The stations that did not pass the discordant and heterogeneity test were discarded from the regional frequency analysis. For regional frequency analysis, the L-moment method was applied. Based on the ZDIST goodness of fit test and the L-moment ratio diagram, the generalized extreme values distribution was identified as the best fit for the SE, NW, and coastal regions. However, for NE, central, SW regions, the best fit distributions were generalized logistic and generalized Pareto, respectively. Using the derived distributions, regional extreme rainfall quantiles were estimated, followed by geo-mapping in ArcGIS 9.2. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Chandra S.,CSIR National Geophysical Research Institute CSIR NGRI | Ahmed S.,CSIR National Geophysical Research Institute CSIR NGRI | Auken E.,University of Aarhus | Pedersen J.B.,University of Aarhus | And 2 more authors.
Leading Edge | Year: 2016

With the growing dependence on groundwater, escalating demand, and increasing depletion of aquifers, the Government of India has accorded special emphasis to management of groundwater resources through precise aquifer mapping. We have carried out hydrogeophysical surveys, including airborne electromagnetic (AEM), in six hydrogeologically divergent areas comprising sedimentary basins, basalts, weathered and fractured granite gneisses and schists, desert, and costal alluvium with the objective to establish suitability of AEM for a countrywide aquifer mapping in India. Efficacy of the dual-moment AEM surveys in mapping the shallow and deep aquifers is evaluated in conjunction with geologic, geophysical, and borehole data. It is found that the AEM surveys provide reliable images of the subsurface resistivity distribution defining the 3D geometrical and electrical attributes of aquifers in different areas. The surveys helped identify the suitable zones for managed artificial recharge (MAR), subsurface structures controlling the groundwater conditions, regional continuity of principal aquifers, palaeoriver channels, variations in lithologic character of aquifers, and the quality of water in terms of salinity, etc. In this paper, we present the efficacy of the aquifer-mapping approach illustrated by an example from an alluvium-covered hard-rock terrain (Dausa, Rajasthan), where a weathered-fractured aquifer system with compartmentalization under alluvium cover is mapped. The integrated data set, comprising AEM, aeromagnetic, ground geophysical, and borehole measurements, was utilized to derive lithologic and hydrogeologic maps useful in developing an aquifer-based groundwater-management plan. © 2016 by The Society of Exploration Geophysicists.


Lazarova V.,Suez Environnement CIRSEE | Abed B.,SEAAL Water and Sanitation Company of Algiers | Markovska G.,University Paris Est Creteil | Dezenclos T.,SEAAL Water and Sanitation Company of Algiers | Amara A.,Ministry of Water Resources
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2013

This paper presents and discusses the results of the project named 'Jasmin' implemented in Algiers to control the strong odours of the river named Oued El Harrach, one of the largest rivers in the centre of the city. Pending the achievement of curative solutions, a temporary option for mitigation of nuisance odour by masking agents was implemented in the vicinity of the main bridges. The efficiency of this technology has been followed by means of an odour panel with the participation of representatives of all stakeholders. A sociological study by means of 1,000 questionnaires and face to- face interviews of the local population demonstrated the benefits and the positive outcomes of the attenuation of odour nuisance: 70% of the surveyed population is satisfied or very satisfied with the application of masking agents and 96% of respondents support the continuation of the project. In terms of size and public access, the project Jasmin is a world-first demonstration of odour control in urban areas in developing countries. © IWA Publishing 2013.


Lazarova V.,Suez Environnement CIRSEE | Markovska G.,University Paris Est Creteil | Abed B.,SEAAL Water and Sanitation Company of Algiers | Dezenclos T.,SEAAL Water and Sanitation Company of Algiers | Amara A.,Ministry of Water Resources
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2012

This paper presents and discusses the results of the project named "Jasmin" implemented in Algiers (Algeria) to control the strong odours of the river named Oued El Harrach, one of the largest rivers in the centre of the city, which is polluted with raw sewage and industrial effluents. Pending the achievement of curative solutions, a temporary option for mitigation nuisance odour by masking agents was implemented in the vicinity of the main bridges. The efficiency of this technology has been followed by means of an odour panel with the participation of representatives of all stakeholders. A sociologic study by means of 1000 questionnaires and face-to-face interviews of local populations demonstrated the benefits and the positive outcomes of the attenuation of odour nuisance: 70% of the population is satisfied or very satisfied with the application of masking agents and 96% of respondents support the continuation of the project. In terms of size and public access, the project "Jasmin" is a world first demonstration of odour control in urban areas in developing countries. Copyright © 2012, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.


Adhikari K.R.,Tribhuvan University | Tan Y.C.,National Taiwan University | Lai J.S.,National Taiwan University | Chen Z.S.,National Taiwan University | Mishra V.S.,Ministry of Water Resources
Irrigation and Drainage | Year: 2013

Drawing results from multi-scale studies, this paper addresses the important coexistence between the Chitwan National Park and buffer-zone farmers' communities in the East Rapti River basin of Nepal. The relationship between the two is discussed using results of land use change (1978-2010) and water availability analysis (1976-2010). At basin level, though there are indications of losses of the government forest, the utilizable outflow of water in the river is still abundant because the process of depletion of water is very low. Scaling down to local level, irrigation systems originating in the river were evaluated and farmers interviewed across locations. There were statistical differences in irrigation system performance affecting water availability for crop production in the buffer zone. Because irrigation plays a disproportionately greater role in farm income and economic water scarcity could be removed, improvement in access to irrigation could effectively help improve food sufficiency and reduce income disparity in this basin. In the forest of the national park, encroachment seems to be low but frequencies of rhino poaching and timber pilferage have remained relatively high. As the buffer zone is the gateway to the park, and subsistence farm families live on the fringes of the park, helping irrigation development would strengthen farmers' cooperation in enhancing resource conservation of the park. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Sinha M.K.,Ministry of Water Resources
Water and Energy International | Year: 2015

Water is essential for everybody’s life, living and livelihood. It is this unique reach, which makes water a most effective means to achieve inclusive growth. It fulfils most basic human and ecological needs and is indispensable to almost all economic activities, including agriculture, energy production, industry, and mining. With impacts on health, gender equity, education and livelihood, water management and water resources projects are crucial to sustainable economic development and the alleviation of poverty. Since beginning of the civilization, water resources projects have contributed towards all round development of the region. But sometimes these projects lack holistic approach thereby inviting criticisms for skewed and lopsided developments along with concerns for environment and displacement of inhabitants of the submergence area. While the command area benefit from irrigation, water supply, etc., people from submergence area not only lose their land and/or livelihood but also their social networks. Similarly, implementation of environment safeguard measures and resettlement & rehabilitation measures often raise several questions. In the process, the opportunity for inclusive growth is not utilized fully. There is a need to learn from implementation of large projects, such as Tehri HE Project, Sardar Sarovar (Narmada) Project, etc., so that proper policy perspectives emerge towards achieving inclusive growth. These experiences and best practices were also corroborated during consultation meetings for National Water Policy (2012), which helped in evolving some policy recommendations in this regard. This paper makes an attempt to present these best practices and policy prescriptions so that project authorities may adopt these and make large water resources projects more beneficial and contribute towards achieving inclusive growth. © 2015, Central Board of Irrigation and Power. All rights reserved.


Rahman M.M.,Bangladesh Water Development Board | Arya D.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Goel N.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Dhamy A.P.,Ministry of Water Resources
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering | Year: 2010

A case study was conducted in the Teesta subcatchment in Bangladesh for determining design flood flows and corresponding flood stages for different return periods using frequency analysis and MIKE 11 model. Different distribution functions of frequency analysis were tested for their goodness of fit. The observed discharge data at Kaunia on the river Teesta were used for estimation of design flood. The Pearson type-III distribution was found best fitted by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, D-index, and L-moment diagram ratio tests, and accordingly 25-, 50-, and 100-year return period design floods were computed. The river network of Teesta River was extracted from SRTM 90-m digital elevation model. The river network of Teesta subcatchment was then simulated by MIKE 11 rainfall-runoff Nedbor-Afstromnings-Model (NAM) and HD model. The resultant time series of river stage was then compared with corresponding observed values. From the model, a stage-discharge relationship (Q-h) curve and respective equation were developed for Kaunia station on the river Teesta. The developed equation determines the corresponding flood stage of estimated flood flow of 25-, 50-, and 100-year return periods. The resulting flows and stages will be useful to design hydraulic structures, prepare flood extent maps, assess vulnerability of flood damage for different return periods, and provide flood forecasting for early warnings of floods. The approach presented would be applicable to similar river basin systems where data are limited and scarce. © 2011 ASCE.


Dhari S.,Ministry of Water Resources | Arya D.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Murumkar A.R.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Applied Geomatics | Year: 2014

Sinuosity and river shifting analysis of the Ganges River in Uttarakhand plains between Haridwar and Balawali has been done using topographic maps and various Landsat images during 1972 to 2005. The transect method was used for the river shifting measurement. The study area consists of a stretch characterized by uneven meandering and shifting. Consequently, the adjacent areas are susceptible to frequent flooding that causes significant losses of crops, property, livestock, and human lives. During the study period, different channel patterns were observed such as straight single-channel river, braided multi-channel river, etc. It was found that the west bank of the Ganges River was subjected to more erosion and that the river is shifting towards the west. The width of the meander belt ranged from 1 to 3.5 km with an average of about 2 km. Based on the findings of this study, it is suggested that the flood protection structures are crucial for the west bank. It is further suggested that these structures be constructed outside the meander belt of the river. © 2014, Società Italiana di Fotogrammetria e Topografia (SIFET).


Balthazar V.,Catholic University of Leuven | Vanacker V.,Catholic University of Leuven | Girma A.,Mekelle University | Poesen J.,Catholic University of Leuven | Golla S.,Ministry of Water Resources
Geomorphology | Year: 2013

A regional assessment of the spatial variability in sediment yields allows filling the gap between detailed, process-based understanding of erosion at field scale and empirical sediment flux models at global scale. In this paper, we focus on the intrabasin variability in sediment yield within the Blue Nile and Atbara basins as biophysical and anthropogenic factors are presumably acting together to accelerate soil erosion. The Blue Nile and Atbara River systems are characterized by an important spatial variability in sediment fluxes, with area-specific sediment yield (SSY) values ranging between 4 and 4935t/km2/y. Statistical analyses show that 41% of the observed variation in SSY can be explained by remote sensing proxy data of surface vegetation cover, rainfall intensity, mean annual temperature, and human impact. The comparison of a locally adapted regression model with global predictive sediment flux models indicates that global flux models such as the ART and BQART models are less suited to capture the spatial variability in area-specific sediment yields (SSY), but they are very efficient to predict absolute sediment yields (SY). We developed a modified version of the BQART model that estimates the human influence on sediment yield based on a high resolution composite measure of local human impact (human footprint index) instead of countrywide estimates of GNP/capita. Our modified version of the BQART is able to explain 80% of the observed variation in SY for the Blue Nile and Atbara basins and thereby performs only slightly less than locally adapted regression models. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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