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Garbarino S.,Ministry of the Interior | Garbarino S.,University of Genoa | Cuomo G.,University of Genoa | Chiorri C.,University of Genoa | Magnavita N.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
BMJ Open | Year: 2013

Objectives: Law and order enforcement tasks may expose special force police officers to significant psychosocial risk factors. The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between job stress and the presence of mental health symptoms while controlling sociodemographical, occupational and personality variables in special force police officers. Method: At different time points, 292 of 294 members of the 'VI Reparto Mobile', a special police force engaged exclusively in the enforcement of law and order, responded to our invitation to complete questionnaires for the assessment of personality traits, work-related stress (using the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) models) and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and burnout. Results: Regression analyses showed that lower levels of support and reward and higher levels of effort and overcommitment were associated with higher levels of mental health symptoms. Psychological screening revealed 21 (7.3%) likely cases of mild depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI≥10). Officers who had experienced a discrepancy between work effort and rewards showed a marked increase in the risk of depression (OR 7.89, 95% CI 2.32 to 26.82) when compared with their counterparts who did not perceive themselves to be in a condition of distress. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that work-related stress may play a role in the development of mental health problems in police officers. The prevalence of mental health symptoms in the cohort investigated here was low, but not negligible in the case of depression. Since special forces police officers have to perform sensitive tasks for which a healthy psychological functioning is needed, the results of this study suggest that steps should be taken to prevent distress and improve the mental well-being of these workers. Source

Magnavita N.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Garbarino S.,Ministry of the Interior | Garbarino S.,University of Genoa
American Journal of Industrial Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Sickness absence due to illness is considered an indicator of work-related stress. Police work is a very stressful job. Sickness absence and sick leave are frequent among policemen. Methods: We tested whether stress variables were predictors of absenteeism in a police unit specifically assigned to the maintenance of law and order. Results: Control, Reward, and Support were negatively related to frequency of absence and short-term absence. Demand and Effort were positively related to total lost days. Absence recorded in the previous year was the best predictor of absenteeism. We also found a positive, albeit weak association between absence in the previous year and subsequent work-related stress. Conclusions: Stress variables are associated with sickness absence, although the association is weak. Both short-term and prolonged sickness absence should be regarded as a warning sign for subsequent sickness absence and distress. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

The development of the Slovenian Criminal Police in the period after Slovenia gained its independence has been shaped through numerous reorganizations. During all previous reorganization processes, the Criminal Police were in constant interaction with the Uniformed Police, the other fundamental component of the Slovenian Police forces. This paper presents organizational solutions for a unified and coordinated management of both police services during different developmental periods. The change in investigating criminal offences at the local level is presented in more detail when, within in the framework of the Public Safety Project, this task was taken over by Police Officers/Criminal Investigators. Presentation of the adoption of the 1998 Police Act (orig. Zakon o policiji, 1998) also covers administrative and professional organization of the Criminal Police at the state and regional level in the so-called "three pillar" model of the organization of the Slovenian Police. Further development was then affected by certain Slovenian doctrinal documents and Slovenia's accession to the European Union and the Schengen Area. The Slovenian Police has been faced with the economic crisis that hit Slovenia and they have been also affected by necessary austerity measures. The results of the "Libra" and "Kaskade" projects and employment data show that the Criminal Police have not been as affected as the Uniformed Police. Several dilemmas regarding centralized and decentralized organization, as well as the administrative and professional management of the Criminal Police, have remained even after the adoption of the new police legislation in 2013. In the conclusions, we point out that employees as well as the wider expert public should be attracted to the preparation of the current basis for the reorganization of the Criminal Police. A decision on an even greater centralization in this field, which is the current goal of reorganization, is very important for the further development of the Slovenian police and its Criminal Police. As a result, the decision must be wisely and seriously questioned since its effectiveness and successfulness, which is rightly expected by the Slovenian public, will strongly depend on it. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA | Phase: SEC-2013.3.2-1 | Award Amount: 13.96M | Year: 2014

This project proposal EARLY WARNING FOR INCREASED SITUATIONAL AWARENESS (EWISA) is addressing the FP7 Theme for Security Research the work programme topic SEC-2013.3.2-1 Pre-Operational Validation (POV) on land borders, the topic Area 10.3.2 Land borders as is aimed to promote further cooperation between public authorities as the end-users on developing new solutions to improve the quality and efficiency of public services related to security issues on topics of common European interest. The proposal is in the area of Activity 10.3, regarding the Intelligent Surveillance and Border Security with the specific funding scheme Pre-Operational Validation (POV), a Combination of Collaborative Project and Coordination (CP-CSA) and Support Action. The project implements the actual strategic approach of Frontex, expressed in EuroSur , through which an intelligence picture of possible threats against MS is obtained, picture created outside the MS and Schengen area, through the combination of radar pictures with video pictures and with the intelligence collected from the sensor stations together with the ones from the MS partners, from checked sources. The threats which are subject to analysis in this project are the following: a) illegal migration, b) smuggling, c) trafficking in drugs and forbidden materials, d) trafficking in weapons The project will provide not only the assessment of a stand-alone technology, but also assessment of the integration into current surveillance infrastructure of the new capabilities provided by the industry. The objective is to increase intelligence in video surveillance. The approach is a process like entity, which consists of: camera-specific processes a modular implementation of successive analysis layers, which is applied for optimal situational awareness: chaining, motion, figure, face. In addition to the cameras processing capabilities, the network consists of: sensors, network analysis and system for control room.

News Article | December 9, 2015
Site: http://www.techtimes.com/rss/sections/internet.xml

Microsoft's Windows 10 IoT Core Pro version is designed to allow OEMS to defer and control updates through Windows Server Update Services (WSUS). The latest version has just been announced by the company in a blog post, stating that it is introducing a new Windows 10 IoT Core Pro to bring flexibility to their partners and customers. The company hopes that the new Pro version will be able to meet the servicing needs of OEMs and ODMs and that it will help ensure the security and better management of devices. "Window 10 IoT Core provides an optimized platform for building smaller and low cost industry devices like IoT gateways," wrote Billy Anders, partner director of Program Management at Windows IoT, in a blog post. Microsoft also announced the commercial availability of Windows 10 IoT Core to all device builders. This would mean that similar to the Pro version, it would also be available to both OEMs and ODMs. "We are working with our ecosystem partners to provide you, as a developer, with the hardware and software options you need to be successful in this market," said Microsoft. Launched in August, Windows 10 IoT Core's vanilla version also received a number of tweaks as mentioned in the blog post. These include the new "direct memory access bus' driver" for running native code in order to bring major performance improvements in GPIO; full support for the TX/RX pins of Raspberry Pi 2 owners; and support for WiFi chipsets RTL8188EU and RTL8192EU of Realtek. What differentiates the IoT Core and the IoT Core Pro version is that the latter features the ability to defer and control updates through the WSUS. Being able to defer updates can be good if OEMs of connected things decide not to implement them for the purpose of testing them and ensuring that things will not break. However, the trouble can begin when a thing-maker decides to implement a delay on the updates which will eventually result to a deprivation of fixes on connected things. OEMs of connected things are known to have a bad track record in terms of implementing patches. Researchers are also saying that third-party drivers that are installed through Windows update pose security risks. Currently, there are over 25,000 potential USB drivers which users can download. This can range from drivers that are duplicates, generic and obsolete. According to Microsoft, they have included an in-box driver that is designed for the FTDI USB-to-serial chipset "because many devices use that as the interface port for controlling them (for example, Home Automation Systems)." Microsoft also added support to more Wi-Fi dongles. This includes support to the official Raspberry Pi Wi-Fi dongle and a pair of Realtek Wi-Fi chipsets which are regularly found in several other dongles such as the TP-LINK TL_WN725N. The company said that the added support will allow users to connect their Windows 10 IoT Core device to the Internet a whole lot easier. Paul Stone, principal consultant of Context Information Security, said that some third-party drivers can have vulnerabilities which can be exploited by hackers. "We have started to download and investigate some 2,284 third-party drivers," said Stone. "Our concern is that when plugging in a USB device, some of these drivers may have vulnerabilities that could be exploited for malicious purposes. Everyone is familiar with the 'searching for Drivers' and 'Windows Update' dialog boxes on their desktops - but these seemingly innocuous windows may be hiding some serious threats." In the meantime, the Ministry of the Interior IT security office in Berlin said in a draft document that poorly-secured consumer routers can result to mass compromise of users. It expressed how the increased functionality of SOHO routers such as VOIP calls capability and network attached storage will require stronger security measures. When attacked, users can be faced with a number of issues such as being denied of net access, being enslaved into botnets and dealing with premium phone calls that they did not make. Other current releases of Microsoft include the Windows 10 IoT Enterprise version which had a summer release and the Windows 10 IoT Mobile Enterprise which was released in November 2015. "We are continuing to evolve our commercial platform ecosystem working closely with key partners and through continued engagement with our OEMs and makers," said Microsoft. There's no information yet on when Microsoft will finally bring Windows 10 Industry for the company's embedded community.

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